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  • Human Rights Assessment

    by: Gabriela Gamez

    channel: Transparency – Summary

    9. Transparency – Full Finding

    Key message

    Mining companies are expected to do more to be transparent about the money and gifts they give to governments in order to fight corruption and improve the governance and benefits of mining projects. Access to information and transparency are also important human rights based principles. The implementation of strong transparency policies and procedures for the Mary River Mine can help improve human rights impacts because there will be less opportunity for inappropriate spending and more accountability and incentives for positive contributions.

    Overview

    The Government of Canada just announced that it is going to make new disclosure rules that will apply to Canadian mining companies. The Mining Association of Canada has helped developed a framework for these new disclosure rules. ArcelorMittal also has strong disclosure and anti-corruption policies. The standards for transparency and disclosure for Baffinland are going to be increasingly stringent over the coming years.

    All parties that administer the economic benefits that will flow from the mine should also set a good example about transparency and anti-corruption. This is needed to reinforce public confidence in the contribution of the mine to sustainable development and good governance. Greater disclosure and access to information about economic payments also helps monitoring and assessment of positive human rights impacts from the mine

    Concerns have been raised in the public hearings about how much of the IIBA benefits will flow to communities. Last summer, some questions were raised about members of the QIA accepting travel to the London Olympics at Baffinland’s expense. Given their important role in administering royalties and IIBA payments, the Designated Inuit Organizations should develop their own policies about transparency and anti-corruption that takes into account their special status. This is an important piece of the puzzle for ensuring that the Mary River Mine and future mining projects in Nunavut make strong contributions to sustainable development and human rights.

    Human rights standards

    Human rights standards related to transparency and access to information are derived from Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”

    The international human rights standards related to access to information and freedom of expression are also relevant to the issue of prior and on-going consultation with all stakeholders (discussed in Finding 5). Meaningful consultation is premised on the provision of adequate information and the respect of stakeholders’ right to freely express their opinions and concerns. According to general human rights principles, transparency and access to information is a component of and indicator for respecting the full range of all other international human rights.

    Canadian Legal Standards

    On June 12th 2013, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the Government of Canada will be establishing new mandatory reporting standards for Canadian extractive companies with a view to enhancing transparency on the payments they make to governments.

    The new reporting regime will be established with a view to: improving transparency; ensuring Canada’s framework is consistent with existing international standards and aligned with other G-8 countries; ensuring a level playing field for companies operating domestically and abroad; enhancing investment certainty; helping reinforce the integrity of Canadian extractive companies; and, helping to ensure that citizens in resource-rich countries around the world are better informed and benefit from the natural resources in their country.

    Over the coming months, the Government of Canada will consult closely with provincial and territorial counterparts, First Nations and Aboriginal groups, industry and civil society organizations on how to establish the most effective regime.

    It is anticipated that the reporting regime will seek to enhance transparency and accountability around material payments by extractive companies to all levels of governments domestically and internationally, including taxes, license fees and other receipts.

    The mandatory reporting initiative is in keeping with the United Kingdom’s priority of transparency put forward at the G-8 Lough Erne Summit.

    Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative

    The EITI Principles provide the cornerstone of the initiative. They are:

    1. We share a belief that the prudent use of natural resource wealth should be an important engine for sustainable economic growth that contributes to sustainable development and poverty reduction, but if not managed properly, can create negative economic and social impacts.
    2. We affirm that management of natural resource wealth for the benefit of a country’s citizens is in the domain of sovereign governments to be exercised in the interests of their national development.
    3. We recognise that the benefits of resource extraction occur as revenue streams over many years and can be highly price dependent.
    4. We recognise that a public understanding of government revenues and expenditure over time could help public debate and inform choice of appropriate and realistic options for sustainable development.
    5. We underline the importance of transparency by governments and companies in the extractive industries and the need to enhance public financial management and accountability.
    6. We recognise that achievement of greater transparency must be set in the context of respect for contracts and laws.
    7. We recognise the enhanced environment for domestic and foreign direct investment that financial transparency may bring.
    8. We believe in the principle and practice of accountability by government to all citizens for the stewardship of revenue streams and public expenditure.
    9. We are committed to encouraging high standards of transparency and accountability in public life, government operations and in business,
    10. We believe that a broadly consistent and workable approach to the disclosure of payments and revenues is required, which is simple to undertake and to use.
    11. We believe that payments’ disclosure in a given country should involve all extractive industry companies operating in that country.
    12. In seeking solutions, we believe that all stakeholders have important and relevant contributions to make – including governments and their agencies, extractive industry companies, service companies, multilateral organisations, financial organisations, investors, and non-governmental organisations.

    Implementation of EITI must be consistent with the criteria below:

    1. Regular publication of all material oil, gas and mining payments by companies to governments (“payments”) and all material revenues received by governments from oil, gas and mining companies (“revenues”) to a wide audience in a publicly accessible, comprehensive and comprehensible manner.
    2. Where such audits do not already exist, payments and revenues are the subject of a credible, independent audit, applying international auditing standards.
    3. Payments and revenues are reconciled by a credible, independent administrator, applying international auditing standards and with publication of the administrator’s opinion regarding that reconciliation including discrepancies, should any be identified.
    4. This approach is extended to all companies including state-owned enterprises.
    5. Civil society is actively engaged as a participant in the design, monitoring and evaluation of this process and contributes towards public debate.
    6. A public, financially sustainable work plan for all the above is developed by the host government, with assistance from the international financial institutions where required, including measurable targets, a timetable for implementation, and an assessment of potential capacity constraints.

    For further information about the EITI Requirements and Rules: http://eiti.org/eiti/requirements

    Mining Association of Canada

    Mining Association of Canada is part of the Canadian Extractive Resource Revenue Transparency Working Group, along with the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC), Publish What You Pay (PWYP) Canada and the Revenue Watch Institute (RWI). The Working Group was formed to develop a framework for the mandatory disclosure of extractive company payments to governments where Canadian companies operate.

    In June 2013, the Working Group released “Recommendations on Mandatory Disclosure of Payments from Canadian Mining Companies to Governments,” which state the following:

    “The Working Group recommends disclosure requirements for Canadian mining companies be mandatory, not voluntary, to ensure that all relevant information is available and accessible to stakeholders, and that companies cannot opt out of compliance. After consideration of the most appropriate venue, or “home,” for Canadian disclosure requirements, the Working Group recommends the implementation of a mandatory disclosure framework through securities regulation with a strong equivalency provision to align with other jurisdictions such as the US and the EU. This recommendation aligns with the US model (where such disclosure is regulated by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and recognizes the existing powers of Canadian securities administrators to regulate the disclosures of public entities in Canada.”

    “A consequence of establishing a reporting regime in securities requirements is that disclosure will be mandatory only for public companies. However, the benefits of this approach are clear. Such a regime will take advantage of the experience of the Canadian securities administrators in receiving and managing disclosure filings, and likely require fewer start-up costs than a new reporting and compliance regime. In addition, the use of securities regulation would mean that the disclosure requirements recommended here would extend to foreign companies who seek to raise capital in Canadian markets.”

    The approach suggested by the Working Group would mean that Baffinland (which is not a publicly-listed company) would not be covered by the mandatory disclosure requirements. However, it may still choose to voluntarily disclose its payments to different levels of government as a result of its corporate policies and commitments.

    Company policies and commitments

    Arcelor Mittal

    From ArcelorMittal's statement of support to the EITI:

    In 2009, ArcelorMittal formalised its support of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), after being an active participant of the EITI in Liberia since May 2007. The EITI’s principles regarding the prudent use of natural resources, transparency, accountability, and stakeholder dialogue complement ArcelorMittal's own corporate values and corporate responsibility policies.

    Baffinland sustainability policy

    4.0 Transparent Governance

    We will take steps to understand, evaluate and manage risks on a continuing basis, including those that impact the environment, employees, contractors, local communities, customers and shareholders.

    We ensure that adequate resources are available and that systems are in place to implement risk-based management systems, including defined standards and objectives for continuous improvement.

    We measure and review performance with respect to our environmental, safety, health, socio-economic commitments and set annual targets and objectives.

    We conduct all activities in compliance with the highest applicable legal requirements and internal standards

    We strive to employ our shareholder’s capital effectively and efficiently. We demonstrate honesty and integrity by applying the highest standards of ethical conduct.

    Additional Information and Resources:

    Government of Canada press release “Canada commits to enhancing transparency in the extractive sector” and backgrounder: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=5525

    G8 Lough Erne Leaders’ Communiqué, paragraphs 34 to 42: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/207771/Lough_Erne_2013_G8_Leaders_Communique.pdf

    Resource Revenue Transparency Working Group (including Mining Association of Canada and Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada)
    • Draft recommendations on mandatory reporting requirements: http://www.mining.ca/www/media_lib/Press_Release/2013/RRTWGDraftforConsultationJune2013.pdf
    • Backgrounder to draft recommendations: http://www.mining.ca/www/media_lib/Press_Release/2013/RRTWGBackgrounderJune2013.pdf

    ICMM 'Position Statement on Transparency of Mineral Revenues' that is supportive of EITI, but also considers the broader aspects of revenue transparency. See: http://www.icmm.com/page/14652/position-statement-on-transparency-of-mineral-revenues

    Extractives Industry Transparency Initiative requirements: http://eiti.org/eiti/requirements


     

    09-07-2013

  • Human Rights Assessment

    by: Gabriela Gamez

    channel: Access to Remedies – Summary

    10. Access to Remedies – Full Finding

    Key message

    The government and Baffinland must provide access to remedies for employees and community members whose human rights have been harmed by the Mary River Mine. There are many different mechanisms for individuals and groups to raise their concerns, but the best ones should operate at the mine site and community level and resolve issues through dialogue or mediation.

    Overview

    Access to remedies is a key component of the international framework for business and human rights. States have an obligation to provide judicial and non-judicial channels for the harms done by companies to human rights. While the rule of law is strong Canada, access to courts and human rights institutions in Nunavut is very difficult due to the barriers of distance, costs and cultural traditions. In a recent report to the legislature in Nunavut, the absence of a human rights commission was highlighted as an important gap in the protection of Nunavummiut.

    The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement provides a framework for access to remedies for Inuit, including through the enforcement of the project certificate by the NIRB and the enforcement of the IIBA by the QIA. These mechanisms are best suited for addressing collective issues. Specific concerns of individuals will likely need to be channeled through formal representatives and monitoring groups.

    Companies are encouraged to establish operational-level grievance mechanisms in order to respect human rights. These should have credible, effective and culturally appropriate channels for employees and community members to raise concerns and have them taken seriously. This does not mean that every complaint is correct, but there should be a fair, transparent and independent process to investigate and decide upon the issues raised. These mechanisms should support continuous learning and help companies address patterns of complaints.

    ArcellorMittal has committed to establishing operational grievance mechanisms for stakeholders in its Human Rights Policy. Baffinland has also committed to establishing a Concerns Procedure for employees in its Human Resources Plan, as well as a Complaints Management Procedure as part of its stakeholder engagement plan. These procedures should be formalized and promoted at the earliest possible stage of the development of the Mary River Mine so that they can begin to address concerns proactively and before they escalate into more serious or formal complaints.

    International Legal Standards

    Access to remedies is protected by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 8, as well as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 2; the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, General Assembly resolution 40/34, Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law, General Assembly resolution 60/147.

    The responsibility for States and companies to provide grievance mechanisms for rights-holders is an integral part of the UN "Protect, Respect and Remedy" framework for business and human rights.

    The Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights were recently adopted by the UN Human Rights Council, and contain the following principles related to State-based and company-based grievance mechanisms:

    Guiding Principle 26: States should take appropriate steps to ensure the effectiveness of domestic judicial mechanisms when addressing business-related human rights abuses, including considering ways to reduce legal, practical and other relevant barriers that could lead to a denial of access to remedy.

    Guiding Principle 27: States should provide effective and appropriate non-judicial grievance mechanisms, alongside judicial mechanisms, as part of a comprehensive State-based system for the remedy of business-related human rights abuse.

    Guiding Principle 29: To make it possible for grievances to be addressed early and remediated directly, business enterprises should establish or participate in effective operational-level grievance mechanisms for individuals and communities who may be adversely impacted.

    Commentary

    Operational-level grievance mechanisms perform two key functions regarding the responsibility of business enterprises to respect human rights.

    • First, they support the identification of adverse human rights impacts as a part of an enterprise’s on-going human rights due diligence. They do so by providing a channel for those directly impacted by the enterprise’s operations to raise concerns when they believe they are being or will be adversely impacted. By analyzing trends and patterns in complaints, business enterprises can also identify systemic problems and adapt their practices accordingly

    • Second, these mechanisms make it possible for grievances, once identified, to be addressed and for adverse impacts to be remediated early and directly by the business enterprise, thereby preventing harms from compounding and grievances from escalating.

    Such mechanisms need not require that a complaint or grievance amount to an alleged human rights abuse before it can be raised, but specifically aim to identify any legitimate concerns of those who may be adversely impacted. If those concerns are not identified and addressed, they may over time escalate into more major disputes and human rights abuses.

    General Principle 31: In order to ensure their effectiveness, non-judicial grievance mechanisms, both State- based and non-State-based, should be:

    (a) Legitimate: enabling trust from the stakeholder groups for whose use they are intended, and being accountable for the fair conduct of grievance processes;
    (b) Accessible: being known to all stakeholder groups for whose use they are intended, and providing adequate assistance for those who may face particular barriers to access;
    (c) Predictable: providing a clear and known procedure with an indicative timeframe for each stage, and clarity on the types of process and outcome available and means of monitoring implementation;
    (d) Equitable: seeking to ensure that aggrieved parties have reasonable access to sources of information, advice and expertise necessary to engage in a grievance process on fair, informed and respectful terms;
    (e) Transparent: keeping parties to a grievance informed about its progress, and providing sufficient information about the mechanism’s performance to build confidence in its effectiveness and meet any public interest at stake;
    (f) Rights-compatible: ensuring that outcomes and remedies accord with internationally recognized human rights;
    (g) A source of continuous learning: drawing on relevant measures to identify lessons for improving the mechanism and preventing future grievances and harms;

    Operational-level mechanisms should also be:
    (h) Based on engagement and dialogue: consulting the stakeholder groups for whose use they are intended on their design and performance, and focusing on dialogue as the means to address and resolve grievances.

    Canadian Legal Standards

    Canada has numerous formal judicial and non-judicial mechanisms related to access to remedies. These include:

    • The formal court system that operates in all provinces with jurisdiction over criminal, civil and commercial matters.

    • Federal and provincial human rights commissions and tribunals that operate in most provinces and territories. However, the absence of a territorial human rights commission was recently highlighted in a report to the Nunavut legislature.

    • Federal and provincial labour relations boards and tribunals with powers to investigate and hear complaints about working conditions and collective bargaining.

    • Other specialized federal and provincial bodies that investigate and make findings related to specific human rights issues: e.g. Privacy Commissioners.

    Internal grievance mechanisms for employees are provided in Canada under federal and provincial labour laws, particularly in relation to mechanisms provided to union members under collective agreements, as well as for raising health and safety concerns through OHS committees.

    Company policies and commitments

    Arcelor Mittal

    Human Rights Policy

    6. Implementation

    ArcelorMittal will share best practices between our operating units on rights’ based grievance mechanisms, with the aim of establishing effective channels for redress for local stakeholders in relation to this Policy.

    External Stakeholder Engagement Procedure

    iv) Grievance mechanism
    • Establish an accessible grievance mechanism to handle complaints on Company activity in a systematic way and ensure that stakeholders are made aware of it and how it works.
    • Ensure that the complainant, or other persons associated with the complaint can seek redress with a guarantee of protection from harassment, prosecution or any other form of reprisal or retaliation.

    Baffinland sustainability policy

    Section 4.0 – Transparent Governance

    • We will take steps to understand, evaluate and manage risks on a continuing basis, including those that impact the environment, employees, contractors, local communities, customers and shareholders.

    Section 9.0 – Employee Relations

    • A concerns procedure will be developed to allow employees to raise concerns and have their issues addressed in a systematic fashion. The procedure will encourage employees to raise issues that affect them and guarantee responses to the issues in an environment free of threat. Elements of the procedure can be developed with employees as the mine develops. Establishment of employee committees on specific issues or responsibilities will also assist in addressing employee concerns.

    Mary River FEIS commitments

    Human Resource Management Plan – Appendix

    5.2 – Employee Communication

    • Baffinland’s HR Department will establish and administer formal and confidential (where necessary) procedures to deal with employee concerns, complaints, grievances, or suggestions. Baffinland will endeavour to resolve conflicts or employee concerns in a prompt and effective manner.

    9.1 – Employee Concerns

    • A concerns procedure will be developed to allow employees to raise concerns and have their issues addressed in a systematic fashion. The procedure will encourage employees to raise issues that affect them and guarantee responses to the issues in an environment free of threat. Elements of the procedure can be developed with employees as the mine develops. Establishment of employee committees on specific issues or responsibilities will also assist in addressing employee concerns.

    Stakeholder Engagement Plan

    Section 6.0. – Complaint Management Procedure

    • As a means to document, assess, and respond to complaints that may arise, the positions responsible for implementing Baffinland’s complaints management process (see Table 5.1) will take practical measures to address all legitimate complaints to the satisfaction of complainants. The positions identified (i.e., Managers and Baffinland Liaison Officers) are collectively referred to as Complaints Officers (COs).

    • It should be recognized that complainants will not distinguish between activities undertaken by Baffinland and its contractors, so all complaints will be directed to Baffinland. It is Baffinland’s responsibility to manage complaints against contractors and construction/operation activities as well as those against Baffinland. The Company can only resolve issues on which it has direct control. For issues outside of Baffinland’s control, the Company will endeavour to facilitate a resolution where possible.

    6.1 – Complaints Procedures

    Baffinland management will follow these procedures to manage complaints:

    • Maintain the identity of all complainants and the complaints they raise as confidential;
    • Assign a Complaints Number to all complaints;
    • Document all complaints in a Complaints Register;
    • Document all verbal complaints on a Complaints Form and indicate that it was submitted verbally;
    • Screen out unfounded complaints and address legitimate complaints;
    • Prioritize complaints according to magnitude (severity, geographic extent, number of people affected) of effect.
    • Notify complainants of the proposed action(s) to rectify the complaint or the reasons why a complaint will not be acted upon;
    • Consult with complainant for further explanation on complaint, when necessary;
    • Involve organizations and/or community groups, where necessary, to manage complaints (i.e., Hamlets, Qikiqtani Inuit Association);
    • Document the action(s) taken to address complaints and the dates when they were both initiated and addressed; and
    • Document follow-up action with details including, why the need for follow-up, who will be responsible, what is expected from the follow-up and when follow-up reports are expected.

    Examples of the Complaint Action Form, Complaint Follow-up Form and the Complaint Log are found in Appendices 1, 2 and 3.

    NIRB Project Certificate

    The Project Certificate issued by the NIRB provides an overall monitoring and enforcement framework for the Mary River mine. The Project Certificate was discussed at a workshop held in Iqaluit on December 18-19, 2012. The NIRB made the following points about the Project Certificate in its introductory presentation:

    • Where it has been determined that a project should proceed, NIRB must issue a Project Certificate including any terms and conditions which have been accepted or varied by the Minister.

    • The terms and conditions of NIRB Project Certificates must be implemented by all government departments and agencies in accordance with their authorities and jurisdictional responsibilities.

    • The terms and conditions of NIRB Project Certificates must be incorporated into relevant permits, certificates, licences or other government approvals that the proponent may require.\

    • Government departments and agencies shall discuss with NIRB how best to implement the terms and conditions of NIRB Project Certificates and may provide NIRB with drafts of permits, certificates, licences and other government approvals.

    • A Project Certificate is a “post-decision” quality control mechanism.
    o It allows regulators and the NIRB to revisit the impact predictions and proposed mitigation measures from the EIS to ensure we got it right
    o The focus of the Project Certificate terms and conditions can be more global than is generally the case with licences and permits.

    • A Project Certificate should:
    o Provide the basis for inspection and surveillance
    o Provide a mechanism for overall compliance and effects monitoring
    o Support adaptive management
    o Adopt audit and process evaluation measures

    Additional References

    ICMM, Human Rights and the Mining and Metals Industry: Handling and Resolving Local Level Concerns and Grievances: http://www.icmm.com/page/15816/human-rights-in-the-mining-metals-sector-handling-and-resolving-local-level-concerns-grievances

    Business and Human Rights Resource Centre, web portal on grievance mechanisms: http://www.business-humanrights.org/SpecialRepPortal/Home/Materialsbytopic/Grievancemechanismsnon-judicial

    Shift, “Mapping Grievance Mechanisms in the Business and Human Rights Arena”: http://www.shiftproject.org/publication/mapping-grievance-mechanisms-business-and-human-rights-arena

    Caroline Rees, “Grievance Mechanisms for Business and Human Rights: Strengths, Weaknesses and Gaps,” Working Paper No. 40 of the Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_40_Strengths_Weaknesses_Gaps.pdf

    IFC Compliance Advisor and Ombudsman, “A Guide to Designing and Implementing Grievance Mechanisms for Development Projects”: http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/howwework/advisor/documents/implemgrieveng.pdf

    IFC, “Good Practice Note: Addressing Grievances from Project-Affected Communities”: http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/cbe7b18048855348ae6cfe6a6515bb18/IFC%2BGrievance%2BMechanisms.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=cbe7b18048855348ae6cfe6a6515bb18
     

    05-07-2013

  • Human Rights Assessment

    by: Gabriela Gamez

    channel: Human Rights and Communities – Summary

    8. Human Rights and Communities – Full Finding

    Key message

    The Baffinland company will make a number of direct and indirect contributions to the Inuit communities through taxes, royalties, impact benefit payments and voluntary contributions to social programmes. These socio-economic contributions have the potential to make a very important positive contribution to human rights for more than a generation and to have a transformative effect on communities. However, it is very important that there is consultation, planning, coordination and monitoring by all stakeholders to ensure that the money is invested with a long-term strategy. From a human rights perspective, the predictable negative social impacts that mining communities experience should be addressed in a pro-active manner.

    Overview

    The first question for communities is about the taxes, royalties and other payments that Baffinland makes to governments and the Designated Inuit Organizations. The government should spend this money in a way that protect, respects and fulfils human rights. For example, government spending on medical clinics in the communities should enhance the right to health; and, contributions by the DIOs to training programmes should promote the right to education and the right to work. The key to understanding whether taxes, royalties and other payments are having positive impacts on human rights is the transparency of the different revenue flows from the Mary River mine.

    One potential issue to monitor is the misalignment between the government departments that receive increased revenues from the mine and those that will have to address the predictable negative social impacts related to mining. For example, the government of Nunavut, the municipality of Iqaluit and the hamlet councils will be on the front-line for rising demands on local infrastructure and services, but will not receive the majority of the economic flows from the mine. Coordination and framework agreements between different levels of government, the DIOs and the communities are important to ensure that there is not a gap in funding to address negative human rights impacts.

    The second question is about Baffinland’s direct contributions to communities. Baffinland has already made significant voluntary contributions in communities and it has pledged to make further contributions to local development funding initiatives. These initiatives can have important positive impacts on human rights. For example, providing computers for school children contributes to the right to education and enhances future opportunities for the right to work. Including beneficiaries in the on-going consultation about and monitoring of Baffinland’s voluntary contribution programs can maximize their results in terms of human rights.

    Beyond its voluntary contributions, Baffinland must address the negative human rights impacts that are related to the mine’s operations. In the public hearing, the RCMP talked about some problems about crime, violence, alcohol and gambling that other northern mining communities have experienced. These problems can have negative impacts on the right to health and the right to security of the person. Other concerns expressed relate to potential negative impacts on the right to housing, the right to food, and the right to traditional livelihoods and culture. These social issues have many causes, but the responsibility to respect human rights implies that Baffinland should work with communities, governments and other stakeholders to proactively address them. These are the issues that should be prioritized by Baffinland’s development funding initiatives.

    International Legal Standards

    • Obligation of the State to promote economic, social and cultural rights.
    o Using the maximum available resources
    o Ensuring minimum levels of economic, social and cultural rights
    o Avoiding deliberately retrogressive measures
    o Ensuring non-discrimination and equality
    o Allowing for participation, transparency and accountability

    • The general responsibility for companies with respect to human rights is to "do no harm;" therefore some social investments may be viewed as 'mandatory' in the sense that they address the negative impacts of a company's operations.

    • Other social investments may be viewed as 'mandatory' because they are part of a formal commitment that a company made with a community, government or financial institution in order to obtain consent and approval to the project.

    • Other social investments may be viewed as 'voluntary' because they are not addressing negative impacts or formal commitments; however, these still represent an opportunity to enhance various international human rights.

    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Articles 23, 25, 26

    • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Articles 6, 11, 12, 13

    • OECD Guidelines for Multilateral Enterprises, General Policies #1

    • ICMM Sustainable Development Framework, Principle 9; ICMM Position Statement on
    • Mining and Partnerships for Development; and ICMM Position Statement on Indigenous Peoples, Commitment #7

    • UN Global Compact and UNIFEM Women’s Empowerment Principles #6

    • UN Common Approach on Human-Rights Based Approaches to Development

    • Indigenous peoples rights are focused on the ability of indigenous people to participate in the design, planning and implementation of development project that are supposed to benefit them. See UN DRIP, Article 32 and ILO 169, Article 15(2)

    Economic contributions from Baffinland

    • The mine’s economic contributions to the State have the potential to contribute positively to the fulfilment of a range of human rights. For the purpose of this assessment, the main international human rights standards are those associated with the State’s general obligation to progressively realize the economic, social, and cultural rights of its citizens. (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)

    • To the extent that Baffinland’s economic flows contribute to specific social programs or infrastructure projects, there may be an enhancement of a range of human rights, such as rights to water, health, or education.

    • Employment and the associated improved income can provide for enhancement of human rights, specifically the right to work and an adequate standard of living.

    • Furthermore, the company’s economic contributions are also part of providing indigenous peoples with benefits from the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources. Indigenous peoples are supposed to be consulted upon and participate in those benefits. (UNDRIP)

    • There are fewer questions and indicators in the DIHR HRCA tool to assess the company’s compliance in this area, but the international standards and guidelines for companies include:
    o Contributions to economic, social and environmental progress with a view to achieving sustainable development; (OECD Guidelines, General Policies 1, ICMM Principle 9)
    o Contributions to the public finances of host countries by making timely payment of tax liabilities; (OECD Guidelines, Chapter X on Taxation)
    o Payment of wages to local employees and contractors to enhance the economic, social and cultural rights of those individuals and their dependents, and also to provide an indirect benefit through spending in the community and contributions to public finances through taxation.

    • The measures a company takes to combat corruption and promote transparency of its payments to governments are also important for supporting the human rights benefits and preventing injustice or impropriety. (ICMM, May 2009, Section 3.7; OECD Guidelines, Chapter VI on “Combating Bribery”; UN Global Compact, Principle 10; ICMM 2010, Principle 1; and GRI, SO2 to SO6).

    Community investments by Baffinland

    • Social investment and other development projects have the potential to enhance economic, social and cultural rights.

    • They may also enhance civil and political rights through capacity-building that permits beneficiaries to develop the skills to participate more fully in democratic society.

    • Social development programs are also a primary mechanism for delivering on UN Declaration on Indigenous Peoples Rights requirement that indigenous peoples participate in benefits of the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources on their lands.

    • To the extent that social investment programmes prioritize health, education, economic development and micro-financing, the main international human rights standards relevant to this assessment are:
    o Right to health;
    o Right to education; and
    o Right to work and an adequate standard of living. 


    • More broadly, social investment projects contribute to the rights of indigenous peoples to participate in the benefits of the exploitation of natural resources pertaining to their land.

    • Relevant international standards and good practice guidance for a company’s contributions to social investment projects include:
    o Contributions to economic, social and environ- mental progress with a view to achieving sustain- able development;42
    o Opportunities for culturally appropriate development benefits through a process of free, prior and informed consultation and the informed participation of the affected communities of indigenous peoples;43
    o Developing an understanding of the social and economic contribution of the project, including an analysis of the barriers that might weaken this contribution;44 and
    o Actively supporting partnerships or collaborations with other stakeholder groups, with the aim of ensuring the project’s full potential socio-economic contribution is realized.45

    Programs to mitigate negative social or economic impacts funded by Baffinland

    • The corporate responsibility to respect human rights requires companies to “do no harm” and to address all the negative impacts that arise from their operations. (Protect, Respect and Remedy, paragraph 24 and 25)

    • Potentially, the full range of internationally-recognized human rights is at risk from a company’s activities. The priority areas of risk and potential for negative impact for the Mary River mine are identified in the other sections of the assessment.

    • In some cases, addressing negative impacts requires Baffinland to refrain from undertaking actions, notably in relation to civil and political rights (e.g. refrain from calling upon public security forces to address the risk of negative impact on the right to security of the per- son or freedom of association). In the area of economic, social and cultural rights, the primary mechanism for Montana to address the potential negative impacts of its operations is through social investments and development programs.

    • There is also an obligation in the UNDRIP to provide compensation to indigenous peoples for any damages sustained as a result of mineral exploitation, as part of indigenous peoples right to participate in the development benefits of exploration and exploitation of natural resources.

    • Furthermore, commitments to mitigate negative social and environmental impacts were also included in the FEIS as well as the NIRB report. As commitments and conditions are closely related to respecting human rights, these confer additional responsibilities for Baffinland from the point of view the “Protect, Respect and Remedy” framework (paragraph 24) as well as for compliance with the regulatory requirements of the project.

    • This is reinforced by relevant industry standards and good practice guidance for addressing social and environmental impacts of projects. (IFC, 2006, Performance Standard 1, paras. 13-16, Performance Standard 7, para. 8; ICMM, 2010b, Principle 3; ICMM, May 2009, 3)

    Canadian Legal Standards

    • Apart from the contractual commitments undertaken in agreements with Designated Inuit Organization (e.g. IIBAs) or with NGOs to deliver social programs, there is no legal requirement for companies to make direct social investments in Canada. Nonetheless, social investments and corporate donations are encouraged through income tax measures and as part of many company's CSR strategies.

    • In Nunavut, there is an obligation to negotiate an IIBA as part of the NLCA

    • The s. 35 duty to consult and accommodate can require investments in measures that mitigate negative impacts.

    • NIRB mandate for the Mary River Project includes socio-economic impacts

    o N.B. the provisions in s. 24 of Bill C-47: “The Board is not authorized to establish, in the exercise of its powers or the performance of its duties, requirements relating to socio-economic benefits.”

    • Obligation to pay various levels of taxes and royalties which may have an indirect impact on social and economic rights, depending on how these revenues are spent by governments and DIOs.

    Mining Association of Canada, “Towards Sustainable Mining”

    • TSM does not contain any performance measures related to contributions to sustainable development; however, recent MOU with PWYP Canada seeks to develop a reporting framework that includes comparable information about resource contributions of the Canadian mining industry. (Further discussed in section on transparency)

    ICMM

    • ICMM Sustainable Development Framework, Principle #9: “Contribute to the social, economic and institutional development of the communities in which we operate.”

    • ICMM Position Statement, “Partnership for Development” (January 2010), that includes a number of recognition statements and commitments.

    • ICMM, “Human rights, social development and the mining and metals sector” (June 2012)
    o The links between human rights, social development and the mining and metals sector
    o Recommendations for government and industry

    • ICMM, “The role of mining in national economies” (October 2012)
    o Table 4: Main components of production value
    • Operating expenditures
    • Salaries and wages
    • Capital expenditures
    • Taxes
    • Financing Costs
    • Profit for shareholders

    o Finding #5: “Even in countries where mining and metals play a major role, there can be large discrepancies in the benefits that accrue at the national level and the benefits at the local level.”

    Company policies and commitments

    Arcelor Mittal 

    (http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/corporate-responsibility/communities)

    At ArcelorMittal, we recognise that investing in a country goes beyond just running successful steel or mining operations. It involves engaging with and contributing to the development of local communities.

    Education
    In the field of education, we recognise our responsibility to share our technical expertise and build up the local skills base. This is why we invest in local training and education programmes, as well as building our own research and development centres. For example, we built specialist facilities for the Karaganda Metallurgical Institute in Kazakhstan, a specialist institution that has trained some of ArcelorMittal’s most senior technical specialists.

    Health
    Health is a fundamental entitlement of every human being, and improving health facilities is at the core of our communities work. From Ukraine to Senegal, we have built new medical centres and polyclinics for employees, their families and the wider community.

    Community Development

    At the heart of most communities are good family homes. In Ukraine, ArcelorMittal Kryviy Rih has provided its employees with free housing. There are further plans to build three more residential buildings in the city.

    Arcelor External Stakeholder Engagement Procedure

    (http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/~/media/Files/A/ArcelorMittal/corporate-responsibility/external-stakeholder-engagement.pdf)

    1. Purpose
    The ArcelorMittal External Stakeholder Engagement Procedure defines the minimum requirements for engaging with external stakeholders for all Company operations and subsidiaries. It is mandatory, and is to be reported at unit and corporate level as part of ArcelorMittal’s commitment to transparent reporting.

    2. Contents
    A. Scope and objectives
    The ArcelorMittal External Stakeholder Engagement Procedure provides guidelines for establishing and maintaining good relationships with local stakeholders including residents, nongovernmental organisations, local authorities, customers, suppliers, academia and other institutions.
    This Procedure does not apply to engaging with ArcelorMittal employees, contractors, sub-contractors or Trade Unions, which is covered by the ArcelorMittal Employee Relations Policy.
    External stakeholder engagement at ArcelorMittal has three objectives:
    • To earn the trust and respect of our external stakeholders.
    • Demonstrate active and visible leadership in stakeholder engagement.
    • To build and protect our brand, reputation and safeguard our license to operate.

    B. Minimum requirements
    Each operating subsidiary must meet the following requirements.
    i) Legal obligations
    In implementing this Procedure, each site must comply with all applicable local laws and regulations on stakeholder engagement and community consultation, which must be incorporated into the basic design of a stakeholder engagement programme.
    ii) Stakeholder identification, analysis and engagement
    Develop an understanding of the Company’s stakeholders and their concerns, including those stakeholders who may be vulnerable because of their age, race, ethnicity, gender, status
    in the community or any other defining factor.
    Undertake regular, at least quarterly, stakeholder and issue prioritisation and integrate the information into Company decision-making processes.
    Have a dedicated, regular and inclusive programme for engaging stakeholders in a culturally appropriate manner through informal and formal events.
    iii) Information disclosure
    Disseminate Company information in a format and language(s) that is accessible to stakeholders.
    Devise and publish an annual Stakeholder Engagement Plan.
    Publish an annual overview of the stakeholder engagement activity, through a local Corporate Responsibility report, website, stakeholder engagement plan or newsletter.
    Publish regular summaries of outcomes of stakeholder meetings, in a locally appropriate format.
    iv) Grievance mechanism
    - Establish an accessible grievance mechanism to handle complaints on Company activity in a systematic way and ensure that stakeholders are made aware of it and how it works.
    - Ensure that the complainant, or other persons associated with the complaint can seek redress with a guarantee of protection from harassment, prosecution or any other form of reprisal or retaliation,
    v) Management functions
    Include stakeholder engagement in the Company’s formal management structure with the appropriate human and financial resources, including at least one person to coordinate
    activities.
    Record details of stakeholder engagement activity and prepare documentation for audit reviews.
    Report to the CEO and the management board regularly on the activity.
    Submit the annual Stakeholder Engagement Plan to the Group Corporate Responsibility Team.
    Review the external stakeholder engagement activity annually.

    Arcelor Mittal Human Rights Policy

    (http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/~/media/Files/A/ArcelorMittal/corporate-responsibility/ArceloSrMittal_HumanRightsPolicy.pdf)

    Scope:

    Local communities: We seek to respect human rights and to develop an understanding of the cultures, customs and values that prevail in our local communities by developing an inclusive and open dialogue with the people affected by our operations. The ArcelorMittal Community Engagement Standard requires us to conduct an open and inclusive dialogue with local
    communities, including engaging with often under-represented groups such as women and Indigenous Peoples.

    Specific Provisions:

    Local Communities
    Avoiding Involuntary Resettlements ArcelorMittal seeks to avoid involuntary resettlements. In situations where it is unavoidable, we commit to comply with the national government’s or regional authorities’ guidelines on resettlement and rehabilitation and also act in line with
    international human rights norms on this subject.
    Respecting Indigenous Peoples’ Rights ArcelorMittal respects the rights of Indigenous Peoples as defined by applicable national and emerging international standards.
    Adopting Proportionate Security Arrangements ArcelorMittal aims to ensure that the provision of security to our operations and our engagement with public and private security
    forces is consistent with the laws of the relevant country and relevant international standards and guidelines, such as the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights. We will adapt
    our security arrangements to balance the need for safety while respecting human rights.
    Developing practices for Land and Water use ArcelorMittal works towards understanding and applying sound practices for land and water use consistent with emerging
    international practices while respecting human rights, and in support of our Environment Policy.

    Arcelor Mittal – Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2011 

    (http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/news-and-media/publications-and-reports/cr-report2011)

    Community engagement: Wherever we operate, we aim to contribute to the development of strong and sustainable communities. We conduct local assessments to define the key areas for engagement that help us to assign our resources and identify new issues for management. Our relationship with communities is important to us. We have a detailed external stakeholder engagement procedure (updated in January 2012), previously called the ArcelorMittal community engagement standard, that we expect all our sites to follow. Every major production site must identify their key stakeholders, their main issues of concern, and then devise a plan to engage with them. Each major operation must also set up a grievance mechanism, so that local people can raise concerns, and be confident that they will be addressed. (p39)

    Human rights in the community: Four of the 12 policy aspects covered by the ArcelorMittal human rights policy relate to our communities – ranging from topics such as access to land and water to resettlement. ArcelorMittal seeks to avoid involuntary resettlements. In situations where it is unavoidable, we commit to comply with the national or relevant regional authorities’ guidelines on resettlement and compensation and also act in line with international human rights norms. All resettlement activity is preceded by stakeholder consultation, to understand and inform how it could be done in a manner that would best benefit those affected and offer them a better quality of life as a result.
    Our human rights policy asserts our commitment to respect Indigenous Peoples’ Rights. Currently our engagement centres around the Baffinland Project in the Arctic in Northern Canada, where we are preparing for a future mining project. The policy also requires us to develop practices for land and water use in reference to human rights concerns. Thus we aim to include human rights elements in our future environmental and social action plans wherever possible (p40).

    ArcelorMittal Foundation: The ArcelorMittal Foundation was set up in 2007 to be a channel for the company’s community investment activities. It concentrates its work on the communities across the world where ArcelorMittal has a major presence, with the aim of making a positive contribution to the social and economic development of the areas around our operating sites (p40-42).

    Baffinland sustainability policy

    (http://www.baffinland.com.vs2.korax.net/wp-content/themes/baffinland/images/SDPolicy%2011-09-09.pdf)

    3.0 Investing in our communities

    We respect human rights and the dignity of others. We honour and respect the unique culture, values and traditions of the Inuit people.
    We contribute to the social, cultural and economic development of sustainable communities adjacent to our operations.
    We honour our commitments by being sensitive to local needs and priorities through engagement with local communities, governments, employees and the public. We work in active partnership to create a shared understanding of relevant social, economic and environmental issues, and take their views into consideration when making decisions.

    Mary River FEIS commitments

    Volume 4 – Human Environment

    Revenues

    Summary of revenues flowing to the territorial government
    During the construction phase Project tax payments are estimated to total roughly $12.5 million per year. This represents approximately 1 % total territorial revenue from all sources. It is noted, though, that this early revenue stream will account for over 10 % or more of the territorial government’s “own-source” revenues of $89 million.
    During operations, approximately $17 million per year will flow to the territorial government through property tax and taxes on inputs such as fuel and labour. Taxes on net corporate income (“profits”) earned in Nunavut will also be paid to the territory. This is currently taxed at a rate of 12 %.(FEIS, volume 4: 232)

    Significance Determination
    The beneficial effect of Project revenues flowing to the territorial government is assessed to be significant over the life of the Project. During operations, taxes paid on property and on inputs of fuel and labour are expected to total nearly 20 % of the territory’s “own-source” revenues. Taxes paid on corporate profits will contribute further revenues to the government. The magnitude of this corporate profits tax is not estimated given the uncertainty and variability caused by factors outside the control of Baffinland, such as iron ore prices, fuel costs, exchange rates and interest rates. (FEIS, volume 4: 232)

    Impact statements (FEIS, volume 4: 240-242) – socio-economic

    14.1.1 Summary of Impact Statements for VSECs (value socio-economic component)

    Impact Statement for the Population and Demographics VSEC
    The Project will have multiple residual effects on the Population Demographics VSEC (Section 2.0) for some of the communities in the North Baffin LSA. These will affect individuals, families and communities, and may include positive as well as negative directions. The dynamic nature of human and community interactions makes it difficult to predict the overall direction (positive or negative) and magnitude of such changes. Mitigation measures implemented by Baffinland aim to enhance the positive residual effects of the Project on this VSEC. Based on the best available understanding of the dynamics involved in these decisions, there is moderate confidence that negative residual effects will have no significant effect on Population Demographics.

    Impact Statement for the Education and Training VSEC
    The assessment of the Project’s residual effects on life skills and on education and skills, combined with a consideration of the subjects of note, concludes that the Project will have a significant positive effect on education and training. This effect is expected to be confined to the LSA and should have sustained benefits that will be felt beyond the termination of the Project. Given the mitigation measures committed to, as described in the HRMP (Appendix 10F-3), confidence in this assessment is high.

    Impact Statement for the Livelihood and Employment VSEC
    The Project is assessed to have no significant adverse residual effects on the Livelihood and Employment VSEC (Section 4.0). With successful implementation of planned mitigation, it is assessed to have significant beneficial effects on this valued component.

    Impact Statement for the Economic Development and Self-Reliance VSEC
    The overall direction of the effects of the Project on the Economic Development and Self-Reliance VSEC are assessed, with a high level of confidence, to be positive. Direct and indirect economic expansion associated with the Project will create new opportunities for employment and business across the RSA, and particularly within the LSA. The Project will enhance labour force capacity and may increase Inuit business capacity. The assessment of Project interactions on land and land use dimensions of this VSEC suggest that these effects will be multi-dimensional. No significant adverse effects on the underlying VECs are assessed. The integrated analysis of the combined effects of the Project does not lead to an assessment of adverse effects on harvesting. Considering the Project’s interactions with these multiple dimensions related to Economic Development and Self-Reliance, the residual effects of the Project are assessed to be positive and significant.

    Impact Statement for the Human Health and Well-Being VSEC
    The positive residual effects of the Project on the Human Health and Well-being VSEC (Section 6.0) are assessed to be significant. Improved income is a major factor in this assessment, as it will improve the well-being of most children whose parents work at the mine. Some negative residual effects are expected to occur in relation to the well-being of some children arising from absence of workers from the community. These effects are not expected to reach levels that would cause significant adverse impacts on the VSEC,however. The Project will have positive and negative residual effects on substance abuse, but these are not assessed to be significant.

    Impact Statement for the Community Infrastructure and Public Services VSEC
    The assessment of the Project’s residual effects on the Community Infrastructure and Public Services VSEC (Section 7.0), combined with a consideration of the subjects of note, leads to a conclusion that the Project will have a significant positive impact this valued component.
    This conclusion is based on an assessment of no significant adverse residual effects on community infrastructure and services arising from competition for skilled workers, and on an assessment of significant labour force capacity development.

    Impact Statement for the Contracting and Business Opportunities VSEC
    The direction of the effects of the Project on the Contracting and Business Opportunities VSEC are assessed, with a high level of confidence, to be positive. Baffinland, through the IIBA, is committed to work closely with the QIA and will fund an initiative for capacity building that will be administered by the QIA. The company is also committed to an Inuit contracting policy adapted to the capacity of Inuit firms.
    The successful implementation of these mitigation measures, and the active participation of individuals in these programs, will largely determine the significance of the Project’s residual effects on contracting and business opportunities. In light of the mitigation measures adopted by Baffinland, the residual effects are assessed to be positive and significant.

    Impact Statement for the Cultural Resources VSEC
    The Project will involve the avoidance, protection and mitigation of archaeological sites in accordance with an Archaeological Mitigation Plan approved by CLEY, and a protection plan to reduce the potential for unintentional destruction of archaeological sites. With the implementation of both the mitigation and protection plans, the Project is expected to have negligible residual effect on the disturbance or removal of archaeological sites, and on the cultural resources VSEC.

    Impact Statement for the Resources and Land-use VSEC
    The Project will interact with current land-use activities such as harvesting, travel and camping. Direct adverse residual effects on these activities are acknowledged. With planned mitigation described in the Key Indicator assessments these effects are predicted to be not significant. Concerns that Project effects on these Key Indicators along with other residual effects on relevant VECs and VSECs might combine to lead to adverse effects on Resources and Land-Use and on harvesting livelihoods were raised during the DEIS technical review. These concerns are addressed in detail in this Volume, Section 4.3. The integrated analysis of the combined effects of the Project does not lead to an assessment of adverse effects on harvesting. The interactions are expected to be complex and highly inter-twinned with other factors affecting harvesting in the LSA. The potential for beneficial outcomes is equally or more highly anticipated than the potential for negative effects. An analytical framework developed for this assessment is carried forward into the monitoring framework of this Volume, Section 15.0.

    Impact Statement for the Cultural Well-being VSEC
    The Project will affect Inuit culture and its development through interactions with Inuit cultural values. To a large degree, these interactions will be positive. The opportunities for productive livelihoods based on self-reliance and sharing of resources, learning and sharing experience through supervisory and role-model functions, and for monitoring the environment are all relevant and supportive of these values. This conclusion that productive employment is aligned with Inuit culture in the contemporary context is something that has also been expressed by Elders during community consultations.
    It is acknowledged, however, that culture has many facets. Different perspectives on industrial development and its effects on culture have been heard during community engagement. Some individuals have deep concerns about the effect of on-going economic development and expansion of the wage economy on Inuit culture. What may be a positive cultural effect for some—access to a job that enables one to provide for family and relatives—may be a negative cultural effect for someone else. For these reasons, Project effects on culture are considered to be diverse in their directions—neither positive nor negative. No significant impact is assessed.

    Impact Statement for the Benefits, Royalty, and Taxation VSEC
    Through its contributions made under the IIBA, as well as payments of royalty, rents, and taxes, the Project will have a significant beneficial effect on the Benefits, Royalties, and Taxation VSEC (Section 12.0). The Project is also expected to reduce social entitlement program expenditures while modestly increasing demands for discretionary social spending.

    Impact Statement for the Government and Leadership VSEC
    The Project is considered to fit well with the strategic priorities identified for both the RSA and the communities of the North Baffin LSA. An effective governance regime will be in place with the signing of an IIBA and, through partnership with the Q-SEMC, Baffinland will contribute to socio-economic monitoring important to the region’s leadership. Therefore, the Project is considered to have a positive and significant effect on the Government and Leadership VSEC (Section 13.0).
    14.1.2 Summary of Project Effects on Key Indicators
    See: Table 4-14.1 presents a summary of the impact statements for each of the key indicators associated with the socio-economic VSECs (p243 -245)

    Socio-Economic Monitoring Framework

    Section 15.0 (volume 4 FEIS, p246)

    This monitoring framework is designed to address how Baffinland’s Mary River Project will be monitored to assess socio-economic effects and to support management decisions. The framework also addresses how Project monitoring will fit in with public monitoring activities and how it can contribute to advancing understanding of socio-economic processes in Nunavut.
    The framework has been prepared through a collaborative process involving BIM, QIA, GN, and AANDC participants. This included two informal meetings with these agencies in Iqaluit during October and November, 2011, along with two working sessions with the QIA socio-economic advisor in Edmonton and Ottawa. This collaboration has been helpful in the development of this framework. Baffinland is, of course, solely responsible for the final product included in this FEIS.
    Baffinland recognises that collaboration in monitoring is necessary given the multiple sources of influence over socio-economic changes taking place across the territory. The expectation is that a collaborative approach to socio-economic monitoring will continue as the Project proceeds.
    The Mary River project socio-economic monitoring plan is designed specifically to address the following monitoring functions arising from internal and external needs for data:

    • Monitor Inuit participation and IIBA implementation
    • Provide data on indicators that affect Project performance
    • Support community, regional and territorial monitoring initiatives
    • Support Baffinland’s management system and adaptive processes
    • Contribute to understanding of socio-economic processes
    • Support compliance monitoring

    Section 16.0 - Conclusions

    The Mary River Project represents important and significant socio-economic benefits to Nunavut. These benefits will apply at the level of North Baffin communities, the Baffin Region, and to the territory overall. These effects are expected to arise primarily from employment of local residents as well as the training and education benefits associated with these employment opportunities. Increased human health and well-being, associated with the benefits of meaningful employment, increased self-reliance, and a reduction in poverty levels is anticipated. Other beneficial effects will arise from the Project’s tax payments to government and from resource royalty and IIBA payments to Inuit organizations. Beneficial effects are also expected to arise from procurement of goods and services from Inuit and northern businesses and from the associated capacity building within the business sector, both locally and on a regional level. These benefits represent value both in their short-term contribution of income to households, enterprises, and organizations as well as over the long term through their positive contribution to the capacity of individuals, businesses, and organisations.
    An important consideration addressed in this Volume has been the question of the Project’s interactions and overall effects on Inuit hunters. The outcome of the Project on harvesting and land-use activities will arise from the combined interactions of the Project on a wide range of factors that influence these activities. This includes effects on marine and terrestrial wildlife as well as effects on the human environment through interactions ranging from household income, rotational work, ability to travel across ice and land due to the Project’s rail and shipping components. These effects have been considered throughout the FEIS and are summarized in this Volume. The potential for beneficial outcomes on harvesting activities overall is equally or more highly anticipated than the potential for overall negative outcomes. However, the range of interactions and the diversity of individual engagement in these activities mean that a wide diversity of responses will be experienced. Baffinland has heard the concerns raised by community residents and agencies, and acknowledges that some disruption will be caused by the Project. The detour around Steensby Inlet caused by the ship track is a specific example of the sort of disruption that is anticipated. The Company has committed to on-going Inuit engagement and collaborative monitoring around this issue.
    The benefits represented by the Project will not come without a cost. In particular, the fly-in/fly-out lifestyle can be challenging for many families and children. Mitigation to support workers and their families will not remove the fact that workers will be away from their community for half the time. For families that succeed in adapting to this lifestyle the rewards may be considerable in a financial sense and from the increased mental well-being that often comes with economic self-reliance and meaningful work. Additionally, increases in income will allow individuals to purchase expensive equipment for the pursuit of traditional activities such as hunting. Having two weeks off the job to spend with family and in other pursuits such as going out on the land, may be an added benefit. For those for whom the fly-in/fly-out lifestyle does not work so well, the hope is that local economic development stimulated by the Project will generate employment opportunities in the community. The reality is that such effects will require considerable planning and coordination amongst community leaders and territorial partners.
    Other potential costs of the Project may arise from the increased affordability of illegal substances, potentially leading to greater substance abuse and lost opportunities. The possibility that some young adults may choose work over school completion has also been noted as a potential negative outcome. In both these situations, the Project is expected to alter the playing field for individuals faced with these decisions. With this Project in place, the rewards will be substantially increased (from what they are under baseline conditions) for many of those who overcome addictions or who gain education. Simply introducing new opportunities for education, training and employment may have major beneficial effects on the outlook for the future for many young people. These cost-benefit effects, however, rely on a sufficient number of individuals succeeding and being seen to succeed, in these areas of opportunity. This includes success in gaining life skills and maintaining employment, success in job promotions and career advancement, and success in business development related to the Project. In all these areas, early, recognizable success will act as a catalyst to encourage others to succeed.
    Given the importance of on-going mitigation and partnership activities, monitoring of Project outcomes and changes generally taking place in the socio-economic environment will be critically important to support effective management response. Maintaining close communication with residents and local leaders through on-going stakeholder engagement will be key to detecting successes and failures so that they can be built upon or addressed, as appropriate. Gathering Project-generated data and participation in collaborative efforts to track broader socio-economic indicators will be useful in discussions with local leaders and others with community perspectives.

    Human Resource Management Plan (Appendice 10F-3)

    Section 11.0 – Support for communities (HRMP, p29)

    Baffinland recognize that while the Project presents Inuit communities with substantial opportunities, it is also likely to create social and cultural impacts and stresses on these communities, including families and individuals. Because of the long duration of the Project needs and opportunities will evolve.
    Mitigating existing and potential impacts, promoting community well being, and developing long-term individual and community capacity is a shared responsibility of Baffinland, the QIA and the Government of Nunavut. Baffinland will cooperate in efforts to address this challenge.
    The communities must be engaged in the development and implementation of strategies to build the capacity necessary to enable communities to deal with existing and potential impacts and to maximize benefits from the Project and to sustain those benefits beyond the life of the Project.
    It is very difficult to measure and predict social and cultural impacts in advance of construction and operations. Baffinland will thus make proactive efforts to address impacts and to capitalize on benefits as they are identified over time. Efforts to address existing and potential social and cultural impacts must include capacity building and the well being of individuals, families and communities to sustain a productive workforce and build good relations with Inuit and Inuit communities.
    Baffinland’s contributions to capacity building and long-term social development include its commitments to employment, training, contracting, and subcontracting. These provisions do not impose any responsibility on Baffinland to assume the role of government or responsibility for social services and infrastructure.

    Section11.1. Ilagiiktunut Nunalinnullu Pivalliajutisait Kiinaujat (INPK fund)

    To provide the required community support and capacity building, Baffinland will contribute to Ilagiiktunut Nunalinnullu Pivalliajutisait Kiinaujat (INPK) (administerd by the QIA). The terms of Baffinland’s participation in this fund are established by the signed IIBA. The INPK fund has the following objectives:

    • creating opportunities for capacity building and synergy with existing capacity in the communities
    • ensuring equity and fair distribution of impacts and benefits within and between communities and across generations
    • maintaining consistency with community development goals
    • ameliorating social and cultural consequences if a proposed mitigation or enhancement is unsuccessful or in the event that unanticipated impacts emerge
    • promoting mutual understanding and learning
    • ensuring transparency and accountability

    Activities supported by the fund could include, but are not limited to:

    • participation in community projects
    • youth and Elder programs
    • hunter support activities
    • family and community-wide activities and programs
    • cultural learning and revitalization programs
    • social support programs for families and individuals
    • individual and family financial planning
    • educational incentives
    • counselling and healing programs
    • seed funding or operational funding for local charities and social organizations

    Archaeological Mitigation Plan
    Appendix 4D - Preliminary Archeological Mitigation Plan

    NIRB conditions and recommendations

    Term and Condition No. 129 – Population Demographics – Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee
    Term or Condition: The Proponent is strongly encouraged to engage in the work of the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee along with other agencies and affected communities, and it should endeavour to identify areas of mutual interest and priorities for inclusion into a collaborative monitoring framework that includes socio-economic priorities related to the Project, communities, and the North Baffin region as a whole.

    Term and Condition no: 130 – Population Demographics – Project-specific monitoring
    Term or Condition: The Proponent should consider establishing and coordinating with smaller socio-economic working groups to meet Project specific monitoring throughout the life of the Project.

    Term and condition no 131: Population Demographics – Monitoring demographic changes
    Term or Condition: The Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee is encouraged to engage in the monitoring of demographic changes including the movement of people into and out of the North Baffin communities and the territory as a whole. This information may be used in conjunction with monitoring data obtained by the Proponent from recent hires and/or out-going employees in order to assess the potential effect the Project has on migration

    Term and condition no 132: Population Demographics – Training programs
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to partner with other agencies such as Hamlet organizations in the North Baffin region, the Municipal Training Organization, and the Government of Nunavut in order to adapt pre-existing, or to develop new programs which encourage Inuit to continue living in their home communities while seeking ongoing and progressive training and development. Programs may include driver training programs offered within Hamlets, providing upgraded equipment to communities for use in municipal works, providing incentives for small businesses to remain operating out of their community of origin, or supplementing existing recreational facilities and programming in North Baffin communities.

    Term and condition no 133: Population Demographics – Monitoring demographic changes
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee and in collaboration with the Government of Nunavut’s Department of Health and Social Services, the Nunavut Housing Corporation and other relevant stakeholders, design and implement a voluntary survey to be completed by its employees on an annual basis in order to identify changes of address, housing status (i.e. public/social, privately owned/rented, government, etc.), and migration intentions while respecting confidentiality of all persons involved. The survey should be designed in collaboration with the Government of Nunavut’s Department of Health and Social Services, the Nunavut Housing Corporation and other relevant stakeholders. Non-confidential results of the survey are to be reported to the Government of Nunavut and the NIRB.

    Term and condition no 143 - Livelihood and Employment – Employee family contact
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to consider the use of both existing and innovative technologies (e.g. community radio station call-in shows, cell phones, video-conferencing, Skype, etc.) as a way to ensure Project employees are able to keep in contact with family and friends and to ward off the potential for feelings of homesickness and distance to impact on employee retention and family stability.

    Term and condition no 148 - Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities – Food security
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to undertake collaborative monitoring in conjunction with the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee’s monitoring program which addresses Project harvesting interactions and food security and which includes broad indicators of dietary habits.

    Term and condition no 149 - Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities – Impacts of temporary closure
    Term or condition: Prior to the commencement of operations, the Proponent is required to undertake an analysis of the risk of temporary mine closure, giving consideration to how communities in the North Baffin region may be affected by temporary and permanent closure of the mine, including economic, social and cultural effects.

    Term and condition no 150 - Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities – Impacts to visitors of Sirmilik National Park
    Term or condition: The Proponent will ensure the following:
    a. The Proponent will maintain, where possible, a minimum flying altitude of 2,000 feet over the park, except for approaches to land, take-off or for safety reasons.
    b. The Proponent will ensure that certification of noise compliance is current, where compliance is applicable.
    c. The Proponent is encouraged to provide Parks Canada with regular flight and shipping schedules that can be used to brief Park visitors.
    d. The Proponent is strongly encouraged to provide due consideration to wilderness experience during its operations in the open water season, especially during the month of August which is typically a time of high use by sea kayakers.

    Term and condition no 152 – Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities – IIBA contract requirements
    Term or condition: The Qikiqtani Inuit Association is encouraged to provide the Board and the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee with information regarding the effectiveness of any provisions within the Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement which may require that larger contracts be broken down into smaller size in order that they are reasonably managed by smaller businesses in the North Baffin region, while respecting any confidential or priveliged information.

    Term and condition no 154 - Human Health and Well-being – Indirect impacts to health and well-being
    Term or condition: The Proponent shall work with the Government of Nunavut and the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee to monitor potential indirect effects of the Project, including indicators such as the prevalence of substance abuse, gambling issues, family violence, marital problems, rates of sexually transmitted infections and other communicable diseases, rates of teenage pregnancy, high school completion rates, and others as deemed appropriate.

    Term and condition no 156 –Human Health and Well-Being – Support initiatives
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to assist with the provision and/or support of recreation programs and opportunities within the potentially affected communities in order to mitigate potential impacts of employees’ absences from home and community life.

    Term and condition no 157 – Human Health and Well-Being – Counseling and treatment programs.
    Term or condition: The Proponent should consider providing counseling and access to treatment programs for substance and gambling addictions as well as which address domestic, parenting, and marital issues that affect employees and/or their families.

    Term and condition no 158 - Community Infrastructure and Public Services – Impacts to health services
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Government of Nunavut and other parties as deemed relevant in order to develop a Human Health Working Group which addresses and establishes monitoring functions relating to pressures upon existing services and costs to the health and social services provided by the Government of Nunavut as such may be impacted by Project-related in-migration of employees, to both the North Baffin region in general, and to the City of Iqaluit in particular.

    Term and condition no 159 - Community Infrastructure and Public Services – Impacts to infrastructure
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Government of Nunavut to develop an effects monitoring program that captures increased Project-related pressures to community infrastructure in the Local Study Area communities, and to airport infrastructure in all point-of-hire communities and in Iqaluit.

    Term and condition no 160 - Community Infrastructure and Public Services – Distribution of benefits
    Term or condition: The Government of Nunavut and the Qikiqtani Inuit Association are encouraged to cooperate to ensure in a broad sense, that Project benefits are distributed across impacted communities and across various demographic groups within these communities in a manner that best offsets any Project-related impacts to infrastructure or services.

    Term and condition no 161 - Community Infrastructure and Public Services – Policing
    Term or condition: The Government of Nunavut should be prepared for any potential increased need for policing, and ensure that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is prepared to handle ongoing Project-related demographic changes and subsequent crime prevention that may be needed as a result of the development, operation, and closure of the Project.

    Term and condition no 162 - Culture, Resources and Land Use – Public consultation
    Term or condition: The Proponent should make all reasonable efforts to engage Elders and community members of the North Baffin communities in order to have community level input into its monitoring programs and mitigative measures, to ensure that these programs and measures have been informed by traditional activities, cultural resources, and land use as such may be implicated or impacted by ongoing Project activities.

    Term and condition no 163 - Culture, Resources and Land Use – Public consultation
    Term or condition: The Proponent shall continue to engage and consult with the communities of the North Baffin region in order to ensure that Nunavummiut are kept informed about the Project activities, and more importantly, in order that the Proponent’s management and monitoring plans continue to evolve in an informed manner.

    Term and condition no 164 – Socio-Economic Impacts – Shipping notification
    Term or condition: The Proponent is required to provide notification to communities regarding scheduled ship transits throughout the regional study area, real-time data regarding ships in transit and any changes to the proposed shipping schedule.

    Term and condition no 165 - Socio-Economic Impacts – Emergency shelters
    Term or condition: The Proponent is strongly encouraged to provide buildings along the rail line and Milne Inlet Tote Road for emergency shelter purposes, and shall make these available for all employees and any land users travelling through the Project area. In the event that these buildings cannot, for safety or other reasons be open to the public, the Proponent shall set up emergency shelters (e.g. seacans outfitted for survival purposes) every 1 kilometre along the rail line and Milne Inlet Tote Road. These shelters must be placed along Tote Road and rail routing prior to operation of either piece of infrastructure, and must be maintained for the duration of project activities, including the closure phase.

    Term and condition no 166 – Socio-Economic Impacts – Public Consultation
    Term or condition: The Proponent should ensure through its consultation efforts and public awareness campaigns that the public have access to shipping operations personnel for transits into and out of both Steensby Inlet port and Milne Inlet port either via telephone or internet contact, in order that any questions regarding ice conditions or ship movements that could assist ice users in preparing for travel may be answered by Project staff in a timely fashion.

    Term and condition no 167 - Benefits, Royalty and Taxation – Partnership Agreements
    Term or condition: The Proponent and the Government of Nunavut are strongly encouraged to, as soon as practical following the issuance of the Project Certificate, enter into discussions to negotiate a Development Partnership Agreement

    Term and condition no 168 – Governance and Leadership – Monitoring program
    Term or condition: The specific socioeconomic variables as set out in Section 8 of the Board’s Report, including data regarding population movement into and out of the North Baffin Communities and Nunavut as a whole, barriers to employment for women, project harvesting interactions and food security, and indirect Project effects such as substance abuse, gambling, rates of domestic violence, and education rates that are relevant to the Project, be included in the monitoring program adopted by the Qikiqtani Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee.

    Term and condition no 169 - Governance and Leadership – Monitoring economic effects
    Term or condition: The Proponent provide an annual monitoring summary to the NIRB on the monitoring data related to the regional and cumulative economic effects (positive and negative) associated with the Project and any proposed mitigation measures being considered necessary to mitigate the negative effects identified.

    Baffinland commitments to issues raised by stakeholders (Final Hearing Report) (Appendix A)

    Issue raised by Baffinland (July 23rd 2012): Baffinland is committed to participating in ongoing initiatives, including working with stakeholders, to address all issues related to the Mary River Project

    Issue raised by Baffinland/ QIA (July 19th 2012): Baffinland is committed to establishing a working/ advisory group consisting of stakeholders of the Mary River Project to identify and address issues surrounding abandonment and restoration activities associated with the Mary River Project. The terms of reference, as well as information on all issues identified to be resolved by the working group, will be made available to the NIRB and interested persons for information and/or review purposes.

    Issue raised by Baffinland (July 17th 2012): Baffinland is committed to participating in the Qikiqtani Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee (SEMC) working group to ensure that relevant effects of the Mary River Project are monitored.

    Issue raised by Baffinland (July 16th 2012): Baffinland is committed to participating in formal, stakeholder working groups, such as terrestrial environment and marine environment working groups, as established within and/or outside of the scope of the IIBA, to gain input, insight, advice and oversight from stakeholders throughout the life of the project and to ensure that adaptive management principles are applied accordingly.

    Issue raised by QIA (July 17th 2012): QIA is committed to explaining the contents of an IIBA for the Mary River Project to the GN once the IIBA has been finalized.

    Issue raised by Baffinland (July 17th 2012): Baffinland is committed to contributing to overseeing the implementation of the IIBA including monitoring of the Project on a continuous basis to allow for ongoing Inuit input related to environmental and social impacts.

    Issue raised by Baffinland (July 23rd 2012): Baffinland is committed to having Inuit Elders visit the Steensby site in 2012 to assist in identifying and ensuring that archaeological sites in the area not impacted by project activities.

    Issue raised by NTI (July 17th 2012): Baffinland is committed to providing training to its employees regarding the protection of archeological resources within the project area.

    Issue raised by NIRB (July 17th 2012): Baffinland is committed to implementing mitigation measures which offset the inconvenience and hardship created for Inuit hunters and travelers that have traditionally used the areas encompassed by the shipping route.

    1. Analysis

    • Government of Canada and Nunavut policies to develop the mining industry as a means of generating revenue and jobs: part of a policy objective that can support the realization of human rights, as

    • Economic and social investment is an area where mining companies have the opportunity to enhance human rights. Furthermore, social investment plays a role in respecting indigenous peoples rights to participate in the benefits of the exploitation of natural resources on their lands. Commitments related to social investment serve as an incentive to obtain project approval from local communities. Increasingly, social investment is related to corporate social responsibility objectives. Given the corporate responsibility to “do no harm,” social investment also plays a critical role in ad- dressing a project’s negative impacts on human rights. Provision of targeted social investment plans is often required as a condition for permitting or financing, and become a company commitment for the project.

    • Mines provide direct economic benefits in the form of employment, services, and contracting, in the course of carrying out their principal activities. These benefits enhance the right to just and favourable conditions of work for the employees and contractors, and provides opportunities to enhance the right to an adequate standard of living for those who receive direct economic benefits. Mines also contribute new revenue streams to governments as taxes and royalty payments; these economic contributions have only an indirect relationship to the fulfilment of human rights by the State, depending on how various levels of government use the additional resources.

    • Increasingly, mining companies are also investing in social development and related programs in the zones where their operations are located. Social investment is normally intended to provide benefits to local populations; shortfalls in government capacity to provide basic services such as education or health care are often targeted, enhancing human rights in these areas.

    • As such, social investment commitments may serve as an incentive from a mining company to obtain project acceptance from local communities, and plays a role in indigenous peoples rights to participate in the benefits of the exploitation of natural resources on their lands. Increasingly, social investment is a means for companies to fulfil corporate social responsibility objectives.

    • Finally, social investment also plays a critical role in mitigating a project’s negative impacts. Provision of targeted social investment plans is often required before permitting and become a regulatory commitment.

     

    05-07-2013

  • Human Rights Assessment

    by: Gabriela Gamez

    channel: Human Rights and the Environment – Summary

    7. Human Rights and the Environment – Full Finding

    Key message

    The history, culture, traditional activities and livelihoods of Inuit are intimately connected with the environment and wildlife. In general, there is uncertainty and concern about the Arctic environment as a result of climate change. There is also uncertainty about the potential impacts of the Mary River project on the environment and wildlife, mainly related to the proposed railway and all-year shipping from Steensby Inlet. From a human rights perspective, one of the most important issues for Baffinland relates to providing information about, and opportunities for participation in, the environmental monitoring programmes for the Mary River mine. Current initiatives to develop a multi-stakeholder Environmental Monitoring Committee should be supported.

     

    International standards related to the environment

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25(1): Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family.

    International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 12:

    1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

    2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for: (b) The improvement of all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene; (c) The prevention, treatment and control of epidemic, endemic, occupational and other diseases; (d) The creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.

    ILO Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention C174; and, ILO Tripartite Declaration of principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, Articles 57 and 58.

     

    OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises

    General Policies:

    1. Contribute to economic, environmental and social progress with a view to achieving sustainable development.

    5. Refrain from seeking or accepting exemptions not contemplated in the statutory or regulatory framework related to human rights, environmental, health, safety, labour, taxation, financial incentives, or other issues.

    10. Carry out risk-based due diligence, for example by incorporating it into their enterprise risk management systems, to identify, prevent and mitigate actual and potential adverse impacts as described in paragraphs 11 and 12, and account for how these impacts are addressed. The nature and extent of due diligence depend on the circumstances of a particular situation.

    VI. Environment

    Enterprises should, within the framework of laws, regulations and administrative practices in the countries in which they operate, and in consideration of relevant international agreements, principles, objectives, and standards, take due account of the need to protect the environment, public health and safety, and generally to conduct their activities in a manner contributing to the wider goal of sustainable development. In particular, enterprises should:

    1. Establish and maintain a system of environmental management appropriate to the enterprise, including:

    a) collection and evaluation of adequate and timely information regarding the environmental, health, and safety impacts of their activities;

    b) establishment of measurable objectives and, where appropriate, targets for improved environmental performance and resource utilisation, including periodically reviewing the continuing relevance of these objectives; where appropriate, targets should be consistent with relevant national policies and international environmental commitments; and

    c) regular monitoring and verification of progress toward environmental, health, and safety objectives or targets.

    2. Taking into account concerns about cost, business confidentiality, and the protection of intellectual property rights:

    a) provide the public and workers with adequate, measureable and verifiable (where applicable) and timely information on the potential environment, health and safety impacts of the activities of the enterprise, which could include reporting on progress in improving environmental performance; and

    b) engage in adequate and timely communication and consultation with the communities directly affected by the environmental, health and safety policies of the enterprise and by their implementation.

    3. Assess, and address in decision-making, the foreseeable environmental, health, and safety-related impacts associated with the processes, goods and services of the enterprise over their full life cycle with a view to avoiding or, when unavoidable, mitigating them. Where these proposed activities may have significant environmental, health, or safety impacts, and where they are subject to a decision of a competent authority, prepare an appropriate environmental impact assessment.

    4. Consistent with the scientific and technical understanding of the risks, where there are threats of serious damage to the environment, taking also into account human health and safety, not use the lack of full scientific certainty as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent or minimise such damage.

    5. Maintain contingency plans for preventing, mitigating, and controlling serious environmental and health damage from their operations, including accidents and emergencies; and mechanisms for immediate reporting to the competent authorities.

    6. Continually seek to improve corporate environmental performance, at the level of the enterprise and, where appropriate, of its supply chain, by encouraging such activities as:
    a) adoption of technologies and operating procedures in all parts of the enterprise that reflect standards concerning environmental performance in the best performing part of the enterprise;

    b) development and provision of products or services that have no undue environmental impacts; are safe in their intended use; reduce greenhouse gas emissions; are efficient in their consumption of energy and natural resources; can be reused, recycled, or disposed of safely;

    c) promoting higher levels of awareness among customers of the environmental implications of using the products and services of the enterprise, including, by providing accurate information on their products (for example, on greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, resource efficiency, or other environmental issues); and

    d) exploring and assessing ways of improving the environmental performance of the enterprise over the longer term, for instance by developing strategies for emission reduction, efficient resource utilisation and recycling, substitution or reduction of use of toxic substances, or strategies on biodiversity.

    7. Provide adequate education and training to workers in environmental health and safety matters, including the handling of hazardous materials and the prevention of environmental accidents, as well as more general environmental management areas, such as environmental impact assessment procedures, public relations, and environmental technologies.

    8. Contribute to the development of environmentally meaningful and economically efficient public policy, for example, by means of partnerships or initiatives that will enhance environmental awareness and protection.

    Commentary on the Environment

    60. The text of the Environment Chapter broadly reflects the principles and objectives contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, in Agenda 21 (within the Rio Declaration). It also takes into account the (Aarhus) Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making, and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters and reflects standards contained in such instruments as the ISO Standard on Environmental Management Systems.

    61. Sound environmental management is an important part of sustainable development, and is increasingly being seen as both a business responsibility and a business opportunity. Multinational enterprises have a role to play in both respects. Managers of these enterprises should therefore give appropriate attention to environmental issues within their business strategies. Improving environmental performance requires a commitment to a systematic approach and to continual improvement of the system. An environmental management system provides the internal framework necessary to control an enterprise’s environmental impacts and to integrate environmental considerations into business operations. Having such a system in place should help to assure shareholders, employees and the community that the enterprise is actively working to protect the environment from the impacts of its activities.

    62. In addition to improving environmental performance, instituting an environmental management system can provide economic benefits to companies through reduced operating and insurance costs, improved energy and resource conservation, reduced compliance and liability charges, improved access to capital and skills, improved customer satisfaction, and improved community and public relations.

    63. In the context of these Guidelines, “sound environmental management” should be interpreted in its broadest sense, embodying activities aimed at controlling both direct and indirect environmental impacts of enterprise activities over the long-term, and involving both pollution control and resource management elements.

    64. In most enterprises, an internal control system is needed to manage the enterprise’s activities. The environmental part of this system may include such elements as targets for improved performance and regular monitoring of progress towards these targets.

    65. Information about the activities of enterprises and about their relationships with sub-contractors and their suppliers, and associated environmental impacts is an important vehicle for building confidence with the public. This vehicle is most effective when information is provided in a transparent manner and when it encourages active consultation with stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, contractors, local communities and with the public-at-large so as to promote a climate of long-term trust and understanding on environmental issues of mutual interest. Reporting and communication are particularly appropriate where scarce or at risk environmental assets are at stake either in a regional, national or international context; reporting standards such as the Global Reporting Initiative provide useful references.

    66. In providing accurate information on their products, enterprises have several options such as voluntary labelling or certification schemes. In using these instruments enterprises should take due account of their social and economic effects on developing countries and of existing internationally recognised standards.

    67. Normal business activity can involve the ex ante assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the enterprise’ s activities. Enterprises often carry out appropriate environmental impact assessments, even if they are not required by law. Environmental assessments made by the enterprise may contain a broad and forward- looking view of the potential impacts of an enterprise’s activities and of activities of sub-contractors and suppliers, addressing relevant impacts and examining alternatives and mitigation measures to avoid or redress adverse impacts. The Guidelines also recognise that multinational enterprises have certain responsibilities in other parts of the product life cycle.

    68. Several instruments already adopted by countries adhering to the Guidelines, including Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, enunciate a “precautionary approach”. None of these instruments is explicitly addressed to enterprises, although enterprise contributions are implicit in all of them.

    69. The basic premise of the Guidelines is that enterprises should act as soon as possible, and in a proactive way, to avoid, for instance, serious or irreversible environmental damages resulting from their activities. However, the fact that the Guidelines are addressed to enterprises means that no existing instrument is completely adequate for expressing this recommendation. The Guidelines therefore draw upon, but do not completely mirror, any existing instrument.

    70. The Guidelines are not intended to reinterpret any existing instruments or to create new commitments or precedents on the part of governments – they are intended only to recommend how the precautionary approach should be implemented at the level of enterprises. Given the early stage of this process, it is recognised that some flexibility is needed in its application, based on the specific context in which it is carried out. It is also recognised that governments determine the basic framework in this field, and have the responsibility to consult periodically with stakeholders on the most appropriate ways forward.

    71. The Guidelines also encourage enterprises to work to raise the level of environmental performance in all parts of their operations, even where this may not be formally required by existing practice in the countries in which they operate. In this regard, enterprises should take due account of their social and economic effects on developing countries.

    72. For example, multinational enterprises often have access to existing and innovative technologies or operating procedures which could, if applied, help raise environmental performance overall. Multinational enterprises are frequently regarded as leaders in their respective fields, so the potential for a “demonstration effect” on other enterprises should not be overlooked. Ensuring that the environment of the countries in which multinational enterprises operate also benefit from available and innovative technologies and practices, is an important way of building support for international investment activities more generally.

    73. Enterprises have an important role to play in the training and education of their employees with regard to environmental matters. They are encouraged to discharge this responsibility in as broad a manner as possible, especially in areas directly related to human health and safety.

    UN Global Compact

    Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges.

    What is the precautionary approach?

    Introducing the precautionary approach, Principle 15 of the 1992 Rio Declaration states that “where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation”.

    Precaution involves the systematic application of risk assessment (hazard identification, hazard characterization, appraisal of exposure and risk characterization), risk management and risk communication. When there is reasonable suspicion of harm and decision-makers need to apply precaution, they have to consider the degree of uncertainty that appears from scientific evaluation. Deciding on the "acceptable" level of risk involves not only scientific-technological evaluation and economic cost-benefit analysis, but also political considerations such as acceptability to the public. From a public policy view, precaution is applied as long as scientific information is incomplete or inconclusive and the associated risk is still considered too high to be imposed on society. The level of risk considered typically relates to standards of environment, health and safety.

    Principle 8: Businesses should undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility.

    What is environmental responsibility?

    In Chapter 30 of Agenda 21, the 1992 Rio Earth Summit spelled out the role of business and industry in the sustainable development agenda as: "Business and industry should increase self regulation, guided by appropriate codes, charters and initiatives integrated into all elements of business planning and decision-making, and fostering openness and dialogue with employees and the public."

    The relevant principle in the Rio Declaration says we have the responsibility to ensure that activities on our own yard should not cause harm to the environment of our neighbours. Society also expects business to be good neighbours. Business gains its legitimacy through meeting the needs of society, and increasingly society is expressing a clear need for more environmentally sustainable practices.

    Canadian Legal Standards

    In Canada, the federal government, as well as provincial, territorial and Aboriginal governments, share responsibility for protecting the environment -- an approach that calls for close collaboration as governments work to support the well-being of Canadians.

    The cornerstone of the Government of Canada's environmental legislation, Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, is aimed at preventing pollution and protecting the environment and human health.

    One of CEPA 1999's major thrusts is the prevention and management of risks posed by harmful substances. As well, CEPA 1999 provides for the assessment and/or management of the environmental and human health impacts of new and existing substances. This includes products of biotechnology, marine pollution, disposal at sea, vehicle, engine and equipment emissions, fuels, hazardous wastes, environmental emergencies and other sources of pollution.

    Work carried out under CEPA 1999 is complemented by other federal Acts administered (fully or partially) by the Minister of the Environment for example, the Fisheries Act, the Canada Water Act, the Species at Risk Act, the Canada Wildlife Act, and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.

    CEPA 1999 Guiding Principles establish the fundamental approach to environmental protection under law, and including the following: Sustainable development, Pollution prevention, Virtual elimination, Ecosystem approach, Precautionary principle, intergovernmental cooperation, Polluter-pays principle, and Science-based decision making.

    Mining Association of Canada, “Towards Sustainable Mining”

    In addition to its Protocol on Health and Safety, the MAC has developed the following Protocols that are relevant to environmental protection.

    • Crisis Management

    MAC's Public Affairs Committee has developed performance indicators for crisis management planning to help companies leverage best practices and critically assess business performance. MAC has established three key performance indicators for this protocol: crisis management preparedness, review, and training.

    • Energy and GHG Emissions Management

    This protocol enables MAC members to evaluate their energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions management against TSM performance indicators. The resulting assessments help member companies develop capacity to monitor and improve performance as well as provide a basis for company assurance.

    • Tailings Management (N.B. Not applicable at Mary River as there is not anticipated to be tailings)

    MAC protocol for tailings management consists of five performance indicators: management policy and commitment; management system development; assigned accountability and responsibility; annual management review; and an operation, maintenance and surveillance (OMS) manual.

    • Biodiversity Conservation Management

    There are three performance indicators against which MAC members can measure their biodiversity and conservation management. They are: corporate biodiversity conservation policy, accountability and communications; facility-level biodiversity conservation planning and implementation; and biodiversity conservation reporting.

    ArcelorMittal Environmental Policy

    Our environmental policy

    The group-wide policy applies to every aspect of our operations and is based on the following principles:

    1. Implementation of environmental management systems including ISO 14001 certification for all production facilities;

    2. Compliance with all relevant environmental laws and regulations, and other company commitments;

    3. Continuous improvement in environmental performance, taking advantage of systematic monitoring and aiming at pollution prevention;

    4. Development, improvement and application of low-impact, environmental production methods that make use of locally available raw materials;

    5. Development and manufacture of environmentally-friendly products, focusing on their use and subsequent recycling;

    6. Efficient use of natural resources, energy and land;

    7. Management and reduction, where technically and economically feasible, of the CO2 footprint of steel production;

    8. Employee commitment and responsibility in environmental performance;

    9. Supplier and contractor awareness and respect for ArcelorMittal’s environmental policy;

    10. Open communication and dialogue with all stakeholders affected by ArcelorMittal’s operations.

    Environmental Policy: http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/~/media/Files/A/ArcelorMittal/who-we-are/EnvironmentalPolicy.pdf

    Baffinland sustainability policy

    2.0. ENVIRONMENT

    • We employ a balance of the best scientific and traditional Inuit knowledge to safeguard the environment.

    • We apply the principles of pollution prevention and continuous improvement to minimize ecosystem impacts, and facilitate biodiversity conservation.

    • We continuously seek to use energy, raw materials and natural resources more efficiently and effectively. We strive to develop pioneering new processes and more sustainable practices.

    • We understand the importance of closure planning. We ensure that an effective closure strategy is in place at all stages of project development and that progressive reclamation is undertaken as early as possible to reduce potential long-term environmental and community impacts.

    Concluding observations about the environment

    In the public hearings for the Mary River project, many of the concerns of Inuit related to the environment. At the same time, the different actors including the company, different government departments and the QIA have been taking these concerns very seriously in the environmental and socio-economic impact review process overseen by the NIRB.

    There are some human rights related to the environment:

    • There are potential impacts on the right to food related to the potential effects of mining operations on wildlife, which is the main source of the “country food” and traditional diet of Inuit. The concerns about wildlife also have implications for Inuit rights to traditional livelihoods and occupations. The ability of Inuit to practice their traditional occupations is closely tied to other rights related to the maintenance of Inuit cultures, languages and traditional knowledge, and their right to self-determination. The greatest risks to wildlife are related to the proposed railway and all-year shipping from Steensby Inlet. Because of the Early Revenue Phase, there are several more years for the different actors to complete baseline studies and design mitigation measures to prevent adverse impacts on wildlife and respect the related human rights.

    • There are potential impacts on the right to health related to the interaction of the mining operations. Because the Mary River mine is in a remote location far away from the nearest communities, and the mine does not require any chemical processing, the risks to the right to health for community members are relatively small. The health risks of employees are part of the discussion of labour rights.

    • There are also potential long-term impacts on the environment related to the closure of the mine. Because the Mary River mine does not involve chemical processing and the accumulation of tailings, there are less environmental risks for closure than for other types of mines. Furthermore, closure is many years away and the time frame for closure may be extended if other ore deposits are developed. The company’s plans include a 4-year closure period with a commitment to post-closure monitoring for as long as is required. There are also important conditions in the mine’s certificate related to closure. The involvement of Inuit in closure planning and post-closure monitoring provides an important opportunity to respect human rights related to the environment.

    From a human rights perspective, one of the most important issues for Baffinland relates to providing information about, and opportunities for participation in, the environmental monitoring programmes for the Mary River mine. Baffinland has made commitments to train and hire Inuit for various jobs related to environmental monitoring in its operations. The QIA is advancing a proposal for an Environmental Monitoring Group that will involve Inuit and other actors. These initiatives should be encouraged and supported as mechanisms to respect human rights related to the environment, as well as Inuit rights to on-going consultation and information about the Mary River project.

    Additional Information and Resources

    • ICMM Position Paper on Climate Change

    • Good Practice Guidance for Mining and Biodiversity: http://www.icmm.com/page/1182/good-practice-guidance-for-mining-and-biodiversity

    • Water Management in Mining: A Selection of Case Studies: http://www.icmm.com/www.icmm.com/water-case-studies

    • Guidance Paper: Financial Assurance for Mine Closure and Reclamation: http://www.icmm.com/page/1232/guidance-paper-financial-assurance-for-mine-closure-and-reclamation

    • Planning for Integrated Mine Closure: Toolkit: http://www.icmm.com/our-work/projects/mineclosure
     

    05-07-2013

  • Human Rights Assessment

    by: Gabriela Gamez

    channel: Workers' Rights at the Mary River Mine – Summary

    6. Workers' Rights at the Mary River Mine – Full Finding

    Key message

    Workers’ rights are one of the areas that the Baffinland company has the greatest amount of control over its impacts. It is also an area where the Inuit have expressed hope and expectations for positive benefits in terms of job opportunities—which can be understood in terms of the right to work and other labour rights. One of the biggest challenges for Baffinland will be non-discrimination in the workplace, especially in terms of hiring, promoting and retaining Inuit and female employees at the Mary River mine.

    International Standards related to Workers’ Rights

    Labour rights are a central issue in all human rights impact assessments. This is because labour rights are protected by international law (the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, as well as by the UN Declaration on Indigenous Peoples Rights), and because companies have control over how their workers are treated. Companies should also make sure that their suppliers and contractors respect their workers.

    Overview of workers’ rights

    Equality and non-discrimination (articles 2 and 3 of the ICCPR and ICESCR)

    Non-discrimination is a fundamental and overarching principle of international human rights. Everyone
is entitled to enjoy human rights irrespective of his or her colour, gender, religion, ethnic, social or national origin, political or other opinion, property, birth, or other status. The Human Rights Committee, which monitors and interprets the ICCPR, has further interpreted the principle of non-discrimination to include other grounds of discrimination such as age, nationality, disability and sexual orientation. Article 2(1) obliges States to prohibit any distinctions, exclusions, restrictions and limitations by both public authorities and private bodies on those grounds in the enjoyment of the rights set out in the ICCPR. This means that States have a responsibility
to ensure that businesses carry out their activities and provide services in a non-discriminatory way. Reasonable and objective distinctions are permitted.

    States must ensure that all rights are enjoyed equally by men and women. States are allowed to adopt positive action to eliminate conditions that contribute to gender discrimination. Similarly, companies can have affirmative action policies for women and other vulnerable groups.

    Within indigenous communities, women, the elderly, youth and children and persons with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable, and accordingly Article 22 requires that, in implementing the UNDRIP, these groups are afforded special consideration. States have a duty to protect these groups from harm, violence, discrimination and any other activities or lack of actions that could compromise their well-being. Article 44 states that all rights and freedoms recognized in the UNDRIP are equally guaranteed to male and female individuals.

    In designing and implementing activities and engaging in business relationships with others that may impact indigenous peoples, and in engaging with indigenous peoples about such activities or business relationships, businesses must ensure that any particular vulnerabilities of these groups are identified and addressed within the due diligence process. This may require separate consultation with such groups.

    Social security (article 9 of the ICESCR)

    The right to social security encompasses the right to access and maintain benefits without discrimination. Governments are obliged to make available a system
of social security. Such systems may involve contributory or insurance-based schemes, which normally entail compulsory contributions from the beneficiary and the beneficiary’s employer (and sometimes the State), as well as universal or targeted schemes funded out of the public purpose. Social security benefits should be available to cover the following areas: health care and sickness, old age, unemployment, employment injury, family and child support, maternity, disability, and survivors and orphans. Social security systems should be affordable and sustainable, so as to provide for present and future generations, and should also provide for adequate benefits. The right is essential in combating poverty, given its redistributive character; its realisation can, for example, have a significant impact on the enjoyment of other related rights, such as the right to an adequate standard of living and the right to health.

    The role of companies in relation to the right to social security will vary depending on the national context. Generally, companies have a basic duty to ensure that legally mandated contributions to the system, in ad- dition to those deducted from employee salaries and wages, are paid promptly to ensure that the govern- ment’s ability to deliver social security payments or ser- vices is not undermined. Increasingly, employment laws also create obligations on companies to provide income and benefits on maternity, injury and the like. If compa- nies operate private social security schemes, they have the responsibility to do so in a non-discriminatory man- ner and they should not impose unreasonable eligibility conditions. Finally, if a company denied its workers their contractually agreed employment injury benefits, its actions would impact negatively on the workers’ rights under Article 9.

    Right to work (article 6 of the ICESCR)

    The right to work recognises the right of everyone to the opportunity to make their living by work which they freely choose or accept. This implies that one should not be forced to engage in employment and that States develop a system designed to guarantee all workers access to employment. Workers should not be unfairly deprived of employment. Work as specified in Article 6 must be ‘decent work’, that is work that respects a per- son’s human rights including workers’ rights regarding conditions of remuneration and work safety. The right
to work includes the prohibition of arbitrary dismissal.

    A company that has significant activities as one of the ‘main players’ regarding the provision of employment, in areas where a government lacks the capacity or willingness to fulfil its commitments, may be expected by stakeholders to play a part in helping to secure fulfilment of the right to work. Companies of all sizes and in all locations may impact on their workers’ right to work if they arbitrarily or unfairly dismiss workers. Even where such practice may be legally permissible under local law, many stakeholders now expect companies to exhibit a higher standard of behaviour in line with international standards and good practice.

    The right to work is closely linked to rights in Article 7 to just and favourable working conditions and trade union rights in Article 8. These rights are components of the overall right to work.


    Right to just and favourable working conditions (article 7 of the ICESCR)

    The right to enjoy just and favourable working conditions has various components, which are all highly relevant to the actions of companies as they concern the treatment of employees. This Article recognises that States must protect the right to remuneration that provides workers with fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value, and that women must be guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men. Remuneration must also be enough to provide workers with a decent living for themselves and their families. Article 7 furthermore comprises a right to healthy and safe conditions of work, a right to equality of opportunity for promotion, and a right to rest, leisure and holidays as part of conditions at work.

    The interpretation of Article 7 is influenced by the corresponding International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions, which elaborate in greater detail the labour standards set out in the Covenant:

    • ILO standards generally prescribe that employees should not be required to work more than 48 hours per week, or ten hours a day, though these rules are subject to some exceptions.
    • ILO conventions relating to the issue of
rest and leisure are also relevant to the issue of working hours. For example, it is specified that there should be at least one day off in every seven, and that a minimum of three weeks’ paid holiday (not including public holidays) be available for every year of full-time service.
    • A minimum wage should be ‘fair’ and enable families to enjoy the right to a standard of living that includes adequate food, clothing and housing (Article 11 of the Covenant). This is reinforced by the corresponding ILO convention, which dictates that the setting of minimum wages should, for example, take into account issues such as the cost of living and the needs of workers and their families. Companies should at least comply with minimum wages mandated by government minimum wage legislation. Wages should be paid regularly and in full, without unauthorised deductions or restrictions.

    With regard to all working conditions, States should require employers to co-operate with independent inspection services to ensure compliance with legal requirements.

    Companies can have a significant impact on the enjoyment of the various rights in Article 7 in their capacity as employers.

    Right to collective bargaining (a component of trade union rights in article 9 of the ICESCR)

    This Article concerns the right of everyone to form trade unions and to join the trade union of his or her choice, subject to the union’s own membership rules. This
right may only be restricted by States in circumstances that are set down in law and are necessary to protect national security, public order, or the rights and freedoms of others. Trade unions themselves have rights to establish national federations or confederations, and for the latter to form or join international trade union groupings. Trade unions are permitted to function freely, subject only to limitations that are lawful and necessary to protect national security, public order or the rights of others. Finally, the Article recognises a right to strike, which must be exercised in conformity with the reason- able requirements of a particular country’s laws.

    The core ILO Conventions governing freedom of association, the right to organise and collective bargaining complement the interpretation of this right. (See: ILO Convention 87 on Freedom of Association and Protection of Right to Organise (1948) and ILO Convention 98 on the Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining (1949)).
    These Conventions dictate that workers should not be dis- criminated against because of trade union membership. Governments should implement measures and develop appropriate mechanisms to promote voluntary good faith negotiations between employers and employees’ organisations, with a view to enabling them to work out collective agreements regarding the regulation of employment.

    Company actions may impact on these rights if they prevent union membership and activity amongst employees or are in any way complicit in actions that restrict employees’ rights to participate in union activity.

    Related rights: freedom of association, right to work and the right to just and favourable conditions of work.

    Freedom from Child labour (related to child protection in article 24 of the ICCPR)

    Children may not be engaged to do work that is hazardous, arduous, and for which they are underpaid, or to work for the same number of hours as adults. Child labourers are frequently denied the opportunity to undertake education as a result of going to work, and their mental and physical health can suffer due to poor working conditions, long hours of work, and ill-treatment by employers.

    The term “child labour” should not be confused with “youth employment” or “ student work.” Child labour is a form of exploitation that is a violation of a human right, and it is recognized and defined by international instruments. It is the declared policy of the international community and of almost all governments to abolish child labour.

    While the term "child" covers all girls and boys under 18 years of age, not all under-18’s must be removed from work: the basic rules under international standards distinguish what constitutes acceptable or unacceptable work for children at different ages and stages of their development. ILO conventions (Minimum Age Convention No. 138 and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention No. 182) provide the framework for national law to prescribe a minimum age for admission to employment or work that must not be less than the age for completing compulsory schooling, and in any case not less than 15 years. Lower ages are permitted for transitional periods – in countries where economic and educational facilities are less well-developed the minimum age for regular work generally is 14 years, and 12 years for “light work”. The minimum age for hazardous work is higher, at 18 years for all countries.

    If an occurrence of child labour is identified, the children need to be removed from the workplace and provided with viable alternatives. These measures often include enrolling the children in schools and offering income-generating alternatives for the parents or above-working age members of the family. Companies need to be aware that, without support, children may be forced into worse circumstances such as prostitution, and that, in some instances where children are the sole providers of income, their immediate removal from work may exacerbate rather than relieve the hardship.

    Safe and healthy working conditions (related to the right to work and the right to just and favourable working conditions in Articles 6 and 7 of the ICESCR)

    ILO standards require governments to adopt, in consultation with appropriate employer and employee organisations, a national occupational health and safety (OHS) policy aimed at reducing accidents and injuries to health arising in the course of employment, and to minimise the causes of inherent workplace hazards. That policy should address, for example, the provision of adequate OHS training regarding the use and maintenance of the ‘material elements of work’, including workplace environment, tools, machinery and equipment. Workers must be able to remove themselves from work situations where imminent and serious health dangers are reasonably perceived, without undue consequences.

    With regard to all working conditions, States should require employers to co-operate with independent inspection services to ensure compliance with legal requirements.

    See ILO Convention 155 Concerning Occupational Health and Safety and the Working Environment (1981), Articles 4, 5 and 13. See also ILO Convention 161 on Occupational Health Services (1985).

    Right to education (articles 13 and 14 of the ICESCR)

    The aim of the right to education is “the full development of the human personality and sense of dignity”. Articles 13 and 14 guarantee all children the right to
free and compulsory primary education. The right also requires progressive steps from governments aimed at the provision of secondary and higher education, including the provision of ‘fundamental’ education for those who could not complete primary education. The right to education also includes the right of equal access to education and equal enjoyment of education facilities, the freedom of parents and children to choose the type of education the children receive, and the freedom to establish educational institutions (subject to minimum educational standards). Educational facilities should be available, accessible, culturally and ethically acceptable, and flexible so as to be able to adapt to society’s changing needs.

    Companies have a vested interest in promoting the right to education for the development of skilled workforces. Companies may impact on the right to education where child labourers are directly employed or operate in their supply chains in a way that prevents those children from attending school. This right is also relevant in the context of any commitments made by a company to provide education to the children of workers or others in the local community. Companies that organise or provide such education should respect equality of access to education. Companies may also impact on the enjoyment of the right if, for example, their involvement with heavy construction or infrastructure projects limits access to nearby schools or results in damage to, or the destruction of, educational facilities.

    Freedom of association (article 22 of the ICCPR)

    Article 22 protects the right to form or join all types of association such as political parties, religious societies, sporting and other recreational clubs, non-governmental organisations and trade unions. This right shall not be restricted, except by lawful regulation necessary to protect the interests of national security, public safety, public order, public health or morals, or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

    Companies’ activities are most likely to impact on the right insofar as it relates to trade unions and other employee representative bodies. Article 8 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) focuses on trade unions alone. Companies respect the right when they respect the right of workers to form trade unions or, when operating in countries where trade union activity is unlawful, they recognise legitimate employee associations with whom the company can enter into dialogue about workplace issues. Companies should also ensure that their activities do not undermine other legitimate organisations, such as political parties. Companies may also promote enjoyment of the right by speaking out in appropriate circumstances, publicly or privately, about laws that curtail the right.

    Right to health (article 12 of the ICESCR)

    This Article recognises the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States must take measures to prevent, treat and control diseases, reduce infant mortality and provide for the healthy development of children, improve all aspects of industrial and environmental hygiene, and to create conditions that will ensure universal access to appropriate medical services and medical attention in the event of sickness. The right includes the right to control over one’s health and body, including reproductive and sexual rights, and freedom from interference, such as freedom from non-consensual medical treatment and experimentation. People must have access to the underlying building blocks of good health, such as adequate nutrition, housing, safe and potable water, adequate sanitation, medical supplies, healthy working conditions and a healthy environment.

    Company activities and products can impact on the right to health of employees, and are expected to ensure that their operations and products do not impact on the right to health of people, such as workers, consumers and local communities. Special consideration should be made in relation to vulnerable sectors of society, such as children and adolescents, women, disabled people and indigenous communities. Companies are expected to ensure compliance with national legislation (including occupational health and safety regulations, and consumer and environmental legislation) and international standards where domestic laws are weak or poorly enforced. Even though informal workers are often not covered by domestic legislation, companies should take steps to ensure that any persons within their supply chains are not exposed to occupational health and safety dangers.

    UNDRIP, article 24: Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their traditional medicines and health practices, while retaining access to all health services, so that they may enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. This right allows indigenous peoples to conserve and protect their medicinal plants, animals and minerals (and their knowledge in relation to these; see also Article 31 in relation to traditional knowledge), but also provides that they shall not be barred access to other social and health services.

    The health of indigenous peoples is often significantly lower than that of the overall population. Factors such as proximity to health services, affordability and language proficiency are just a few reasons that contribute to this problem. In some instances, indigenous people may suffer from health risk factors such as poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and the abuse of other drugs and substances. For this reason, protecting indigenous peoples’ right to all social and health services is crucial to the survival of their communities and cultures, and their development opportunities.

    Businesses should ensure that they do not access indigenous medicinal resources without consent, and do not adversely impact indigenous peoples’ intellectual property rights through, for example, patenting their knowledge of traditional medicines without consent. Where companies are accessing indigenous medicinal resources, they must ensure that their activities do not damage stocks (of relevance to those conducting activities on lands occupied or used by indigenous peoples). Businesses should consider ways in which access to health services and products by indigenous peoples could be enhanced where it is insufficient (of relevance to companies in the health industry, and also those with appropriate distribution channels which could be used to assist in this respect). It is also important for companies to respect the health of indigenous employees, and provide them with the same health benefits (e.g., health insurance and workplace health programs) as all other employees.

    There are several ways businesses can respect and support the health of indigenous peoples. Businesses that manufacture pharmaceuticals have the unique ability to provide indigenous peoples with access to medicines they produce. Businesses that work in areas with indigenous communities can assist in the creation and maintenance of health service facilities. Businesses that work in the areas with indigenous communities can also engage with them to assist in the preservation of their medicinal plants, animals and minerals.

    Laws and institutions that protect workers’ rights in Nunavut

    • Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, section 15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. (2) Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.

    • Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms, section 2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms: (d) freedom of association.

    • Canada Labour Code, Part One (Industrial Relations): The Canada Industrial Relations Board has jurisdiction in regard to some 800,000 employees engaged in federal jurisdiction industries, which include interprovincial transportation (air, land and water), broadcasting, banking, longshoring and grain handling, and to private sector employees in Nunavut, the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories.

    • Nunavut Human Rights Act (2003), section 9: Employment: Prohibited grounds of discrimination and harassment

    • Nunavut Labour Standards Act provides regulations for basic wage, overtime, holidays, maternity leave, etc.

    • Workers’ Safety and Compensation Board of NWT and Nunavut

    • Mine Health and Safety Act (Nunavut), S.N.W.T. 1994, c. 25, in force December 15, 1995, as amended.
    o S. 2: Duties of owner to protect the health and safety of employees at the mine, etc.
    o S. 11: Occupational health and safety committee
    o S. 15: Duties of contractors
    o S. 17: Workers to comply with Act
    o S. 18: Right to refuse work
    o S. 19: Non-discrimination for refusal to work
    o S. 21 ss.: Investigation and inspection
    o S. 45: regulations

    • Mine Health and Safety Regulations, R-125-95, as amended

    • Explosives Use Act

    Company Policies relevant to Workers’ Rights

    ArcelorMittal Human Rights Policy

    Eliminating Forced or Compulsory Labour: ArcelorMittal opposes the use of forced or compulsory labour. We will also work with our subcontractors and suppliers to avoid indirectly benefiting from or promoting such illegal practices.

    Abolishing Child Labour: ArcelorMittal opposes the use of child labour. We will work in collaboration with subcontractors and suppliers to prevent and remove any instances of child labour in a manner that is consistent with the best interests of the child.

    Eliminating Unlawful Discrimination in the Workplace: ArcelorMittal is committed to ensure that each employee
and potential employee is treated with fairness and dignity. Accordingly, any unlawful discriminatory practice based on race, colour, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, ethnicity, national or social origin, property, political or other opinion, disability, birth or any other basis will not be tolerated. The Company seeks to provide each employee with equal opportunity for advancement without discrimination.

    Eliminating Harassment and Violence: ArcelorMittal is committed to promote a work environment free of any form of harassment, exploitation, abuse or violence as defined by the laws of each country in which we operate.

    Providing Competitive Compensation and Remuneration: ArcelorMittal aims to pay competitive wages based on local market assessments and at a minimum seeks to provide a commensurate compensation for each employee.

    Upholding Conditions of Employment: ArcelorMittal complies with all laws regarding conditions of employment including basic and over-time working hours, and will abide by agreements negotiated with our employee representatives.

    Promoting Freedom of Association: ArcelorMittal upholds freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining. We also work with our subcontractors and suppliers to promote the achievement of this principle.

    ArcelorMittal Health and Safety Policy

    Principles:
    • All injuries and work related illnesses can and must be prevented.
    • Management is accountable for the Health & Safety performance.
    • Communication, involvement and training of all employees are essential in Health & Safety excellence.
    • Everyone has a role to play in preventing injuries and illnesses.
    • Excellence in Health & Safety supports excellent business results.
    • Health & Safety must be integrated into all business management processes.
    • Product Stewardship aiming at eliminating Health & Environmental impact for customers.

    To achieve this we will:
    • Identify, evaluate and eliminate Health & Safety risks to ensure that hazards are managed.
    • Establish an effective process for preventing all injuries and work related illnesses.
    • Build a supportive culture that requires visible Leadership with clear accountability.
    • Provide everyone with effective training so that we are all able to work safely.
    • Investigate all incidents in order to prevent a recurrence.
    • Establish a culture where work will be stopped if it is unsafe.
    • Establish measurable objectives to monitor progress through regular audits and reporting.
    • Comply fully with all legal requirements and meet or exceed these expectations wherever we operate in the world.
    • Update and test emergency procedures.

    Source: http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/~/media/Files/A/ArcelorMittal/corporate-responsibility/HealthAndSafetyPolicy.pdf

    ArcelorMittal Employee Relations Policy

    1. To regard our employees as an important and highly valued resource to be cared for, empowered and rewarded.
    2. To view trade unions as constructive role players in the organisation and to subscribe to the principle of freedom of association.
    3. To establish structures through the organisation to proactively engage trade unions and employees with a view to create and strengthen constructive relationships. The competitive advantage of ArcelorMittal’s’ business is dependant on our ability to harness and optimise the human capital within the organisation.
    4. To implement and maintain non-discriminatory employee practices and internationally recognised employment standards.
    5. To encourage the implementation of formal communication to all employees through the implementation of communication channels and systems in all of our operations. Regular interaction and consultations will take place with employee representatives.
    6. To operate within and adhere to the legislative and collective bargaining framework of the countries in which it operates. Group operations will enter into Collective Agreements with any representative trade union. Nothing contained herein will prevent any of the Group operations to have dealings with other unions and non-union members.
    7. To introduce procedures and structures at operations level to give expression to the need to institutionalise employee relations in a mutually beneficial way, with the aim to build productive relationships and to achieve business goals. The accountability for managing employee relations rests with the management teams of the each of the Group’s operations. The Corporate Employee Relations has a specific role to establish policies and procedures, support operations by providing guidance on employee relations processes and procedures, facilitate relationship building, employee relations strategy development and build employee relations capacity.
    8. To recognise the right of employees to lawfully withhold labour. This policy statement must be read within the context of the provisions of local legislation and the provisions of applicable Collective Labor Agreements that are in force.
    9. Notwithstanding the above, to promote agreements on continuity of sensitive units like blast furnaces or coke ovens that by design should not stop under any circumstances.
    10. To continuously develop the capacity of the various role players to effectively manage Employee relations, to provide applicable training programmes on an ongoing basis. These programmes will include training in the application of processes, policies and procedures.
    11. Corporate Employee Relations will regularly monitor and assess the application of the Group’s Employee relations policy.

    Source: http://www.arcelormittal.com/corp/~/media/Files/A/ArcelorMittal/corporate-responsibility/Employee-Relations-Policy.pdf

    Baffinland’s Sustainability Policy

    1.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY

    We strive to achieve the safest workplace for our employees and contractors; free from occupational injury and illness from the very earliest of planning stages. Why? Because our people are our greatest asset. Nothing is as important as their health and safety. We report, manage and learn from injuries, illnesses and high potential incidents to foster a workplace culture focused on safety and the prevention of incidents.

    We foster and maintain a positive culture of shared responsibility based on participation, behaviour and awareness. We allow our workers and contractors the right to stop any work if and when they see something that is not safe.

    Baffinland’s Human Resource Management Plan

    • Section 2.0 – Human resources management principles
    Baffinland’s human resource policies and procedures are based on the following principles (P 4): promoting a safe, healthy and productive workplace; promoting a work environment of continuous improvement; supporting employees’ efforts and aspirations to contribute at their full potential by promoting and rewarding workers based on merit and performance mutual trust, and providing transparent HR processes good corporate citizenship and responsibility

    • Section 3.0 - Workplace preparedness
    3.1 cross-cultural recognition
    3.2.Inuit preparedness for the workplace
    3.3. Inuktitut in the workplace
    3.4. affirmative steps for attracting female employees
    3.5. employee and family assistance program
    3.6. availability of country food
    3.7. traditional activities

    • Section 6.0 - Recruitment Program
    6.1. Project Human Resources Strategy
    6.5. Inuit Human Resources Strategy
    6.5.1. Inuit Recruitment and Selection Program
    6.5.2 Retention, advancement and career development
    6.5.4 Inuit Women's Access to Employment

    • Section 7.0 - Occupational Heath and Safety
    • Section 7.2. Medical program

    • Section 8.0 - Education and Training
    • List of training programs see Table 5.1. p 22).

    • Section 9.0 – Employee Relations
    • Section 9.3 – Employee benefits
    • Section 10.0 - Contracting and Subcontracting

    Baffinland Health and Safety Management Plan (FEIS - Appendix 10E)


    Baffinland is committed to leadership and continuous improvement in environmental, health, and safety practices for the benefit of employees, contractors, and communities.

    This will be accomplished by:
    • Providing a safe and healthy workplace;
    • Integrating environmentally sound practices in all processes;
    • Complying with applicable laws, regulations, policies, and standards;
    • Conserving natural resources and energy;
    • Providing necessary resources to support environment, health, and safety goals and objectives; and
    • Integrating environmental, health, and safety goals and objectives with overall business strategy.

    Baffinland Environmental Health and Safety Committee Charter (appendix 10A-1) 


    To meet applicable legal requirements and operate at a best practices level, the EHS Committee is committed to undertake the following responsibilities with respect to the environment and health and safety of its employees:


    Communicate to the company the importance of developing: (i) a culture of environmental responsibility and (ii) an awareness of the importance of health and safety.


    Ensure adequate resources are available and systems in place for company management to implement appropriate environmental, and health and safety programs and request and obtain from the Chief Operating Officer periodic reports on such programs.


    Establish policies, and provide oversight on development and implementation of management systems relating to environmental and health and safety matters.


    Ensure management has implemented an Environmental, Health, and Safety Policy and Framework that includes defined standards and objectives, monitors effectiveness and, from time to time, reports to management any necessary improvements to such policy and its framework of implementation.


    Ensure management has implemented an environmental, health, and safety performance measurement system that can be used to provide a continuous measure of environmental and health and safety performance and continuous improvement of the company.


    Use the environmental, health, and safety performance measurement system to monitor compliance with legal requirements and internal targets, as well as communicate a demonstrated commitment to the environment and employee health and safety to shareholders and stakeholders, including all members of the company.


    Ensure that management has implemented an environmental and health and safety compliance audit program, request from the Chief Operating Officer periodic status reports on such program, and provide feedback on necessary improvement to the program.


    Receive an annual report from management that includes any environmental, health, and safety issues of a material nature.
    Report on its activities to the shareholders annually in the company’s annual report or management information circular for the annual shareholders’ meeting or other disclosure documents or on the company’s website.

    NIRB Terms and Conditions related to Workers’ Rights

    Term and Condition no. 135 - Education and Training / Work and Study
    Objective: Recognizing the 12-hour work days inherent with work at the Project site, it is not clear how employees would successfully engage in a work/study program offered by the Proponent.
    Term and Condition: The Proponent is encouraged to consider offering additional options for work/study programs available to Project employees (in addition to study programs at project sites that would be offered to employees when off shift).

    Term and condition 136 - Education and training / transferable skills
    Objective: Offering training which results in certifications that are valid for employment at more than one site or in different fields provides an investment in the long-term employability of Nunavummiut.
    Terms or conditions: The Proponent is encouraged to work with training organizations and/or government departments offering mine-related or other training in order to provide additional opportunities for employees to gain meaningful and transferable skills, credentials and certifications especially where such training of employees offered by the Proponent remains valid only at the Mary River Project sites.

    Term and Condition no 137 -Education and training/ transferable skills
    Objective: Offering training which results in certifications that are valid for employment at more than one site or in different fields provides an investment in the long-term employability of Nunavummiut.
    Term or condition: Prior to construction, the Proponent shall develop an easily referenced listing of formal certificates and licences that may be acquired via on-site training or training during employment at Mary River, such listing to indicate which of these certifications and licenses would be transferable to a similar job site within Nunavut. This listing should be updated on an annual basis, and is to be provided to the NIRB upon completion and whenever it is revised.

    Term and condition no 138 - Education and training - Inuit employee training
    Objective: Working together with the Qikiqtani Inuit Association to prepare effective training programs developed specifically for Inuit will assist in employee preparedness and may improve employee retention.
    Term and condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Qikiqtani Inuit Association to ensure the timely development of effective Inuit training and work-ready

    Term and condition no 140 - Education and Training - Survey of Nunavummiut employees
    Objective: Monitoring the number of employees who leave previous employment in their home communities or who leave some type of formal education in pursuit of employment with the Project is important to evaluate predictions made and the potential impacts to North Baffin communities and education rates.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to survey Nunavummiut employees as they are hired and specifically note the level of education obtained and whether the incoming employee resigned from a previous job placement or educational institution in order to take up employment with the Project.

    Term and condition no 141 - Education and training - Training of Inuit
    Objective: To ensure that effective training is available in a timely manner.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Qikiqtani Inuit Association prior to construction in order to prioritize the provision of training of Inuit to serve as employees in monitoring or other such capacities.

    Term and condition no 142 - Livelihood and Employment - Employee cohesion
    Objective: To promote cohesion between employees on site, and between employees and their families.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to address the potential direct and indirect effects that may result from Project employees’ on-site use of various Inuktitut dialects as well as other spoken languages, specifically paying attention to the potential alienation of some employees that may occur as a result of language or other cultural barriers.

    Term and condition no 143 - Livelihood and Employment - Employee family contact
    Objective: To enable and foster connection and contact between employees and family members.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to consider the use of both existing and innovative technologies (e.g. community radio station call-in shows, cell phones, video-conferencing, Skype, etc.) as a way to ensure Project employees are able to keep in contact with family and friends and to ward off the potential for feelings of homesickness and distance to impact on employee retention and family stability.

    Term and condition no 144 - Livelihood and Employment - Requirement for employment
    Objective: To ensure that the prerequisites and requirements for employment are clear and well known in work readiness program.
    Term and condition: The Proponent is encouraged to make requirements for employment clear in its work-readiness and other public information programs and documentation, including but not limited to: education levels, criminal records checks, policies relating to drug and alcohol use and testing, language abilities.

    Term and condition No 145 - Livelihood and Employment - Barriers to employment of women
    Objective: To monitor and understand the existence of barriers to employment for women specifically relating to childcare availability and costs
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Government of Nunavut and the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee to monitor the barriers to employment for women, specifically with respect to childcare availability and costs.

    Term and condition no 146 - livelihood and employment - Availability of childcare for project employees
    Objective: To lessen the barriers to employment as relating to the availability of childcare.
    Term or condition: The Government of Nunavut and the Qikiqtani Inuit Association are strongly encouraged to investigate the possibility for Project revenue streams to support initaitves or programs which offset or subsidize childcare for Project employees.

    Term and condition no 147 - livelihood and employment - Affordability of housing
    Objective: To lessen the barriers to maintaining employment as relating to the availability and costs of housing.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to work with the Government of Nunavut and the Nunavut Housing Corporation to investigate options and incentives which might enable and provide incentive for employees living in social housing to maintain employment as well as to negotiate for and obtain manageable rental rates.

    Term and condition no 149 - Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities - Impacts of temporary closure
    Objective: To further the understanding of how a temporary closure may impact on the well-being of the residents and businesses of the North Baffin region.
    Term or condition: Prior to the commencement of operations, the Proponent is required to undertake an analysis of the risk of temporary mine closure, giving consideration to how communities in the North Baffin region may be affected by temporary and permanent closure of the mine, including economic, social and cultural effects.

    Term and condition no 151 - Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities -Access to Housing
    Objective: To investigate ways that economic development and self-reliance my improve access to housing by employees
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to investigate measures and programs designed to assist Project employees with homeownership or access to affordable housing options.

    Term and condition no 152 - Economic Development and Self-Reliance, and Contracting and Business Opportunities - IIBA contract requirements
    Objective: To improve ability of small businesses to access Project contract and sub-contract opportunities.
    Term or condition: The Qikiqtani Inuit Association is encouraged to provide the Board and the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee with information regarding the effectiveness of any provisions within the Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement which may require that larger contracts be broken down into smaller size in order that they are reasonably managed by smaller businesses in the North Baffin region, while respecting any confidential or privileged information

    Term and condition no 153 - Human Health and Well-Being - Employee and family health and well-being
    Objective: To provide adequate medical services on site, including those that contribute to the mental health and well-being of all employees.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is encouraged to employ a mental health professional to provide counselling to Inuit and non-Inuit employees in order to positively contribute toward employee health and well-being.

    Term and condition no 154 - Human Health and Well-being - Indirect impacts to health and well-being
    Objective: To understand the indirect impacts of the Project upon health and well-being.
    Term or condition: The Proponent shall work with the Government of Nunavut and the Qikiqtaaluk Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee to monitor potential indirect effects of the Project, including indicators such as the prevalence of substance abuse, gambling issues, family violence, marital problems, rates of sexually transmitted infections and other communicable diseases, rates of teenage pregnancy, high school completion rates, and others as deemed appropriate.

    Term and condition no 155 - Human Health and Well-being - Employee cohesion
    Objective: To encourage the on-site cohesion of employees through cultural-awareness and social programs.
    Term or condition: The Proponent is strongly encouraged to provide the NIRB with an updated report on its development of mitigation measures and plans to deal with potential cultural conflicts which may occur at site as these may become needed.

    Term and condition no. 156 - Human health and well-being - support initiatives
    Objective: To assist with fostering well-being within point-of-hire communities.
    Term and condition: The Proponent is encouraged to assist with the provision and/or support of recreation programs and opportunities within the potentially affected communities in order to mitigate potential impacts of employees’ absences from home and community life.

    Term and condition no 157. - Human health and well-being - Counselling and treatment programs
    Objective: To male available, necessary treatment and counselling services for employee and family well-being.
    Term and condition: The Proponent should consider providing counselling and access to treatment programs for substance and gambling addictions as well as which address domestic, parenting, and marital issues that affect employees and/or their families.

    Concluding observations: key issues to be monitored at the Mary River Mine

    The key issues that need to be monitored from a human rights perspective include:

    • Non-discrimination in employment. This means that Inuit workers and female workers should have equal chances to get hired and promoted at the mine. They should also be protected against harassment at work. This has sometimes been a challenge at other mines in Canada. Baffinland’s training activities such as the Work Ready Program are positive steps to give Inuit opportunities for jobs. Training and apprenticeships for Inuit promote the right to work and the right to education. The government and the DIOs should collaborate to provide strong training programmes to allow Inuit to take advantage of the opportunities at the Mary River mine and for future mining projects in Nunavut.

    • Safe and healthy working conditions. Modern mines in Canada have good safety records and Baffinland says that safety is its number one priority. However, there are many health and safety risks related to the different aspects of the Mary River mine, so on-going training, monitoring and inspection will be very important. Particular care and counseling should be provided to support mental health at the mine in relation to potential issues related to the fly-in/fly-out working arrangements and potential substance abuse problems.

    • Just and favourable working conditions. Modern mines in Canada provide excellent wages and benefits and Baffinland is expected to be an employer of choice in Nunavut. By providing just and favourable working conditions for its employees, Baffinland also provides opportunities for families and communities to enhance other human rights such as food, health and education. As many Inuit are not accustomed to working in the formal economy, they may need support to ensure that generous wages and benefits turn into positive human rights outcomes. Government, DIOs and local communities all have a role to play.

    • Freedom of association and collective bargaining. It is important that workers can discuss workplace issues and concerns with management. Some mines in Canada have unions and others do not. What is important is that Baffinland allows workers to meet together and to raise individual and collective issues such as health, safety, wages and benefits.

    • Preventing forced labour and child labour. It is extremely unlikely that there will be forced labour or child labour issues at the Mary River mine. However, given the school drop-out rates in some Inuit communities, attention should be paid to child labour issues for local businesses that provide services to the mine.

     

    05-07-2013